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     cdrw - CD read and write

     cdrw -i [-vSCO] [-d device] [-p speed] [image-file]

     cdrw -a [-vSCO] [-d device] [-p speed] [-T audio-type] audio-file1

     cdrw -x [-v] [-d device] [-T audio-type] track-number out-file

     cdrw -c [-vSC] [-d device] [-p speed] [-m tmp-dir]
         [-s src-device]

     cdrw -b [-v] [-d device] all | session | fast

     cdrw -L [-v] [-d device]

     cdrw -M [-v] [-d device]

     cdrw -l [-v]

     cdrw -h

     The cdrw command provides the ability  to  create  data  and
     audio CDs. This command also provides the ability to extract
     audio tracks from an audio CD and to create data  DVDs.  The
     CD or DVD device must be MMC-compliant to create a CD or DVD
     with the cdrw command.

     cdrw searches for a CD or DVD writer connected to  the  sys-
     tem, unless you specify a device with the -d option. If cdrw
     finds a single such device,  it  uses  that  device  as  the
     default CD or DVD writer for the command.

     When more than one CD or DVD writer is connected to the sys-
     tem,  use the -d option to indicate which device is desired.
     The device name can be specified in  one  of  the  following
     ways:  /dev/rdsk/cNtNdNsN,  cNtNdNsN, cNtNdN, or a name used
     by volume manager, such as cdrom or  cdrom1.  Using  the  -l
     option provides a list of CD or DVD writers.

     For  instructions  on   adding   a   USB-mass-storage-class-
     compliant  CD-RW  or  DVD-RW  device  to  your  system,  see

  Creating Data CDs
     When creating data CDs, cdrw uses the Track-At-Once mode  of
     writing.  Use  the -i option to specify a file that contains
     the data to write on CD media. If  you  don't  specify  this
     option, cdrw reads data from standard input.

     In either case, the data is typically prepared by using  the
     mkisofs  command  to  convert  the file and file information
     into the High Sierra format used on CDs.  See  the  examples
     that include use of this command.

  Creating Data DVDs
     cdrw can create single-session data DVDs on DVD+RW or DVD-RW
     devices using images generated from mkisofs. These disks can
     be mounted as HSFS file systems. When making data DVDs, cdrw
     uses  Disk-At-Once  (DAO)  mode of writing, which closes the
     media when writing is completed  and  prevents  any  further
     sessions  from  being added. The image should be prepared in
     advance when writing an image to the  DVD  media  since  DAO
     mode  requires  that  the  size  of  the  image  be known in

  Creating Audio CDs
     Use the -a option to create an audio CD. Single or  multiple
     audio  files  can  be specified with this option. All of the
     audio files should be in a supported audio format. Currently
     approved formats are:

     sun    Sun .au files with data in Red Book CDDA form

     wav    RIFF (.wav) files with data in Red Book CDDA form

     cda    .cda files having raw CD audio data (that is, 16  bit
            PCM  stereo  at 44.1 KHz sample rate in little-endian
            byte order)

     aur    .aur files having raw  CD  data  in  big-endian  byte

     If no audio format is specified, cdrw tries to identify  the
     audio  file  format based on the file extension. The case of
     the characters in the extension is ignored. If a  format  is
     specified using the -T option, it is assumed to be the audio
     file type for all the files specified. Also,  using  the  -c
     option  closes  the  session after writing the audio tracks.
     Therefore, the tracks to be written should be specified in a
     single command line.

  Extracting Audio
     cdrw can also be used for  extracting  audio  data  from  an
     audio  CD  with  the -x option. The CD should have tracks in
     Red Book CDDA form. By default, the output format  is  based
     on  the  file extension. A user can specify a sun, wav, cda,
     or aur output format with the -T option.

  Copying CDs
     cdrw can be used to copy single session data CD-ROMs and Red
     Book  audio  CDs. When copying a CD, cdrw looks for a speci-
     fied source device. If no source device  is  specified  when
     using  the -c option, the current CD writer is assumed to be
     the source. cdrw extracts the track or tracks  into  a  tem-
     porary  file and looks for a blank writable CD-R/RW media in
     the current CD writer. If no media is found, insert a  blank
     writable  CD  media in the current CD writer. If the default
     temporary directory does not have enough space, an alternate
     directory can be specified by using the -m option.

  Erasing CD-RW or DVD-RW Media
     Users have to erase the CD-RW media before it can be rewrit-
     ten.  With  the  -b option, the following flavors of erasing
     are currently supported:

     session    Erases the last session.

     fast       Minimally erases the media.

     all        Erases the entire media.

     If the session erasing type is used, cdrw  erases  the  last
     session.  If there is only one session recorded on the CD-RW
     (for example, a data or audio CD-RW created by  this  tool),
     then  session  erasing  only  erases  the  portion  that  is
     recorded, leaving behind a blank disk.  This is faster  than
     erasing  the  entire media. For DVD media, using the -b ses-
     sion erases the whole media.

     The fast erasing type minimally erases the entire  media  by
     removing  the  PMA and TOC of the first session. It does not
     erase the user data and subsequent tracks on the media,  but
     the  media  is treated as if it were a blank disk. If a com-
     plete erase is of  the  media  is  necessary,  use  the  all

     The all erasing type should be used if it is a  multisession
     disk,  the  last  session  is  not closed, or disk status is
     unknown, and you want to erase the disk. With this  type  of
     erasing, cdrw erases the entire disk.

     DVD+RW media does not  support  erasing.  To  re-use  DVD+RW
     media, simply write a new image onto the media. cdrw formats
     and overwrites the existing media automatically.

  Checking device-list or media-status
     You can list a system's CD or DVD writers by  using  the  -l
     option. Also, for a particular media, you can get the blank-
     ing status and table of contents by using the -M option. The
     -M  option  also prints information about the last session's
     start address and the next writable address.  This  informa-
     tion,  along  with the -O option, can be used to create mul-
     tisession  CDs.  Refer   to   the   mkisofs(8)   man   page,
     (/usr/share/man/man8/mkisofs.8),  in  the  SUNWfsman package
     for more information.

     The following options are supported:

     -a    Creates an audio disk. At least  one  audio-file  name
           must  be  specified.  A  CD  can not have more than 99
           audio tracks, so no more than 99 audio  files  can  be
           specified.  Also,  the  maximum audio data that can be
           written to the media by default is 74 minutes,  unless
           -C is specified.

     -b    Blanks CD-RW or DVD-RW media. The type of erasing must
           be  specified  by  the all, fast, or session argument.
           DVD+RW media does not support  blanking,  but  can  be
           rewritten without the need for blanking.

     -c    Copies a CD. If no other argument  is  specified,  the
           default  CD writing device is assumed to be the source
           device as well. In this case, the copy operation reads
           the  source  media  into  a  temporary  directory  and
           prompts you to place a blank media into the drive  for
           the copy operation to proceed.

     -C    Uses stated media capacity. Without this option,  cdrw
           uses  a  default value for writable CD media, which is
           74 minutes for an audio CD, 681984000 bytes for a data
           CD, or 4.7 Gbytes for a DVD.

     -d    Specifies the CD or DVD writing device.

     -h    Help. Prints usage message.

     -i    Specifies the image file  for  creating  data  CDs  or
           DVDs.  The  file  size should be less than what can be
           written on the media. Also, consider having  the  file
           locally  available  instead  of  having the file on an
           NFS-mounted  file  system.  The  CD  writing   process
           expects  data  to  be  available  continuously without

     -l    Lists all the CD or DVD writers available on the  sys-

     -L    Closes the disk. If the media  was  left  in  an  open
           state  after the last write operation, it is closed to
           prevent any further writing. This operation  can  only
           be done on re-writable CD-RW media.

     -m    Uses an alternate temporary directory instead  of  the
           default  temporary  directory  for  storing track data
           while copying a CD  or  DVD.  An  alternate  temporary
           directory might be required because the amount of data
           on a CD can be huge. For example, the amount  of  data
           can be as much as 800 Mbytes for an 80 minute audio CD
           and 4.7 Gbytes for a DVD. The default temporary direc-
           tory might not have that much space available.

     -M    Reports media status. cdrw reports  if  the  media  is
           blank   or  not,  its  table  of  contents,  the  last
           session's start address, and the next writable address
           if  the  disk is open. DVD+RW does not support erasing
           and always has some content on the media.

     -O    Keeps the disk open. cdrw closes the session,  but  it
           keeps  the  disk  open  so that another session can be
           added later on to create a multisession disk.

     -p    Sets the CD writing speed. For example, -p 4 sets  the
           speed  to  4X.  If  this option is not specified, cdrw
           uses the default speed  of  the  CD  writer.  If  this
           option is specified, cdrw tries to set the drive write
           speed to this value, but there is no guarantee of  the
           actual speed that is used by the drive.

     -s    Specifies the source device for copying a CD or DVD.

     -S    Simulation mode. In this mode, cdrw operates with  the
           drive  laser  turned off, so nothing is written to the
           media. Use this option to verify  if  the  system  can
           provide data at a rate good enough for CD writing.

           CD-R, CD-RW (not MRW  formatted),  DVD-R,  and  DVD-RW
           media  support  simulation  mode (-S). DVD-RAM, DVD+R,
           DVD+RW, any MRW-formatted media, and  some  others  do
           not support simulation mode (-S).

     -T    Audio format to use for extracting audio files or  for
           reading  audio files for audio CD creation. The audio-
           type can be sun, wav, cda, or aur.

     -v    Verbose mode.

     -x    Extracts audio data from an audio track.

     Example 1 Creating a Data CD or DVD

       example% cdrw -i /local/iso_image

     Example 2 Creating a CD or DVD from a Directory

     This example shows how to create a CD or DVD from the direc-
     tory tree /home/foo.

       example% mkisofs -r /home/foo 2>/dev/null | cdrw -i -p 1

     Example 3 Extracting an Audio Track Number

     This example shows how to extract audio track  number  1  to

       example% cdrw -x -T wav 1 /home/foo/song1.wav

     Example 4 Using wav Files

     This example shows how to create an audio CD from wav  files
     on disk.

       example% cdrw -a song1.wav song2.wav song3.wav song4.wav

     Example 5 Erasing CD-RW or DVD-RW Media

     This example shows how to erase rewritable media.

       example% cdrw -b all

     Example 6 Creating a Data CD or DVD with Multiple Drives

     This example shows how to create a data CD or DVD on a  sys-
     tem with multiple CD, DVD-R, or DVD-RW drives.

       example% cdrw -d c1t6d0s2 -i /home/foo/iso-image

     Example 7 Checking Data Delivery Rate

     This example shows how to verify that the system can provide
     data  to a CD-RW or a DVD drive at a rate sufficient for the
     write operation.

       example% cdrw -S -i /home/foo/iso-image

     Example 8 Running at a Higher Priority

     This example shows how to run cdrw at a higher priority (for
     root user only).

       example# priocntl -e -p 60 cdrw -i /home/foo/iso-image

     Example 9 Creating a Multi-session Disk

     This examples shows how to create the first session image by
     using mkisofs and recording it onto the disk without closing
     the disk.

       example% cdrw -O -i /home/foo/iso-image

     Additional sessions can be added to an open disk by creating
     an image with mkisofs using the session start and next writ-
     able address reported by cdrw.

       example% cdrw -M

       Track No. |Type    |Start address
       1        |Data    | 0
       Leadout   |Data    | 166564

       Last session start address: 162140
       Next writable address: 173464

       example% mkisofs -o /tmp/image2 -r -C 0,173464 -M \
         /dev/rdsk/c0t2d0s2 /home/foo

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWcdrw                    |

     audioconvert(1),   priocntl(1),   attributes(5),    rbac(5),
     scsa2usb(7D), sd(7D)

     mkisofs(8), (/usr/share/man/man8/mkisofs.8), in the  SUNWfs-
     man package

     The CD writing process requires data to  be  supplied  at  a
     constant  rate  to the drive. Keep I/O activity to a minimum
     and shut down any related  I/O  applications  while  writing

     When making copies or extracting audio tracks,  use  an  MMC
     compliant source CD-ROM drive. The CD writer can be used for
     this purpose.

     Before writing a CD, ensure that the media is blank by using
     the  -M  option.  You can use the -S simulation mode to test
     the system to make sure it can provide data at the  required
     rate.  cdrw  turns  on buffer underrun protection for drives
     that support it and recovers from most stalls. If the system
     is  not  able to provide data at a constant rate or frequent
     stalling occurs, you can lower the speed  by  using  the  -p
     option. You can also try to run cdrw at a higher priority by
     using the priocntl(1) command.

     If you know that the CD-R/RW drive can operate at  different
     write speeds, use the -p option. Some commercially available
     drives handle the drive speed setting  command  differently,
     so use this option judiciously.

     Most commercially available drives allow writing  beyond  74
     minutes  as  long as the media has the capacity (such as 80-
     minute media). However,  the  ability  to  write  beyond  74
     minutes  might  not be supported by the drive in use. If the
     drive supports this feature, then use the -C option to indi-
     cate  that the tool should rely on the capacity indicated by
     the media.
     The cdrw command uses rbac(5) to control user access to  the
     devices. By default, cdrw is accessible to all users but can
     be restricted to individual users. Refer to  the   for  more

Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.