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chdir


NAME
     cd, chdir, pushd, popd, dirs - change working directory

SYNOPSIS
     /usr/bin/cd [directory]

  sh
     cd [argument]

     chdir [argument]

  csh
     cd [dir]

     chdir [dir]

     pushd [+n | dir]

     popd [+ n]

     dirs [-l]

  ksh
     cd [-L] [-P] [arg]

     cd old new

DESCRIPTION
  /usr/bin/cd
     The /usr/bin/cd utility changes the current directory in the
     context  of  the cd utility only. This is in contrast to the
     version built into the shell. /usr/bin/cd has no  effect  on
     the invoking process but can be used to determine whether or
     not a given directory can be set as the current directory.

  sh
     The Bourne shell built-in cd changes the  current  directory
     to  argument.  The shell parameter HOME is the default argu-
     ment. The shell parameter CDPATH defines the search path for
     the  directory  containing  argument.  Alternative directory
     names are separated by a colon  (:).  The  default  path  is
     <null>  (specifying  the  current  directory).  The  current
     directory is specified by a null path name, which can appear
     immediately after the equal sign or between the colon delim-
     iters anywhere else in the path  list.  If  argument  begins
     with `/', `.', or `.. ', the search path is not used. Other-
     wise, each directory in the path is searched  for  argument.
     cd  must  have  execute  (search)  permission  in  argument.
     Because a new process is created to execute each command, cd
     would be ineffective if it were written as a normal command;
     therefore, it is recognized by and is internal to the shell.
     (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).
     chdir is just another way to call cd.

  csh
     If dir is not specified, the C shell built-in  cd  uses  the
     value  of shell parameter HOME as the new working directory.
     If dir specifies a complete path starting with ` / ', ` . ',
     or ` .. ', dir becomes the new working directory. If neither
     case applies, cd tries  to  find  the  designated  directory
     relative  to  one of the paths specified by the CDPATH shell
     variable. CDPATH has the same syntax as, and similar  seman-
     tics  to,  the  PATH  shell  variable.  cd must have execute
     (search) permission in dir. Because a new process is created
     to  execute each command, cd would be ineffective if it were
     written as a normal command; therefore, it is recognized  by
     and  is  internal  to  the  C-shell. (See pwd(1), sh(1), and
     chdir(2)).

     chdir changes the shell's  working  directory  to  directory
     dir.  If  no argument is given, change to the home directory
     of the user. If dir is a relative pathname not found in  the
     current  directory, check for it in those directories listed
     in the cdpath variable. If dir is the name of a shell  vari-
     able  whose  value  starts with a /, change to the directory
     named by that value.

     pushd pushes a directory onto the directory stack.  With  no
     arguments, exchange the top two elements.

     +n       Rotate the n'th entry to the top of the  stack  and
              cd to it.



     dir      Push the current working directory onto  the  stack
              and change to dir.



     popd pops the directory stack and cd to the new  top  direc-
     tory.  The elements of the directory stack are numbered from
     0 starting at the top.

     +n       Discard the n'th entry in the stack.



     dirs prints the directory stack, most recent  to  the  left;
     the first directory shown is the current directory. With the
     -l argument, produce an unabbreviated printout; use of the ~
     notation is suppressed.


  ksh
     The Korn shell built-in cd command can be in either  of  two
     forms. In the first form it changes the current directory to
     arg. If arg is - the directory is changed  to  the  previous
     directory.  The  shell variable HOME is the default arg. The
     environment variable PWD is set to the current directory. If
     the  PWD  is  changed, the OLDPWD environment variable shall
     also be changed to the value of the old  working  directory,
     that  is, the current working directory immediately prior to
     the call to change directory (cd). The shell variable CDPATH
     defines  the  search  path for the directory containing arg.
     Alternative directory names are separated by  a  colon  (:).
     The default path is null (specifying the current directory).
     The current directory is specified  by  a  null  path  name,
     which can appear immediately after the equal sign or between
     the colon delimiters anywhere else in the path list. If  arg
     begins  with a ` / ', ` . ', or ` .. ', then the search path
     is not used.  Otherwise,  each  directory  in  the  path  is
     searched  for  arg.  If  unsuccessful, cd attempts to change
     directories to the pathname formed by the  concatenation  of
     the value of PWD, a slash character, and arg.

     -L       Handles the operation dot-dot (..) logically.  Sym-
              bolic  link components are not resolved before dot-
              dot components are processed.



     -P       Handles the operand  dot-dot  physically.  Symbolic
              link  components  are  resolved before dot-dot com-
              ponents are processed.



     If both -L and -P options are specified, the last option  to
     be  invoked  is used and the other is ignored. If neither -L
     nor -P is specified, the operand is  handled  dot-dot  logi-
     cally.

     The second form of cd substitutes the  string  new  for  the
     string  old  in the current directory name, PWD and tries to
     change to this new directory.

     The cd command cannot be executed by  rksh.  Because  a  new
     process  is  created  to  execute  each command, cd would be
     ineffective if it were written as a normal  command;  there-
     fore, it is recognized by and is internal to the Korn shell.
     (See pwd(1), sh(1), and chdir(2)).

OPERANDS
     The following operands are supported:

     directory       An absolute  or  relative  pathname  of  the
                     directory   that  becomes  the  new  working
                     directory. The interpretation of a  relative
                     pathname   by   cd  depends  on  the  CDPATH
                     environment variable.



OUTPUT
     If a non-empty directory name from CDPATH is used, an  abso-
     lute pathname of the new working directory is written to the
     standard output as follows:

          "%s\n", <new directory>


     Otherwise, there is no output.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the  execution of cd: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

     CDPATH          A colon-separated  list  of  pathnames  that
                     refer   to  directories.  If  the  directory
                     operand does not begin with a slash  (  /  )
                     character,  and  the  first component is not
                     dot or dot-dot, cd  searches  for  directory
                     relative  to  each  directory  named  in the
                     CDPATH variable, in the  order  listed.  The
                     new  working  directory  sets  to  the first
                     matching directory found. An empty string in
                     place of a directory pathname represents the
                     current directory. If CDPATH is not set,  it
                     is treated as if it were an empty string.



     HOME            The name of the home directory, used when no
                     directory operand is specified.



     OLDPWD          A pathname of the  previous  working  direc-
                     tory, used by cd-.



     PWD             A pathname of the current working directory,
                     set  by  cd  after  it  has  changed to that
                     directory.

EXIT STATUS
     The following exit values are returned by cd:

     0        The directory was successfully changed.



     >0       An error occurred.



ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     csh(1),  ksh(1),  pwd(1),  sh(1),  chdir(2),  attributes(5),
     environ(5), standards(5)










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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