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echo


NAME
     echo - echo arguments

SYNOPSIS
     /usr/bin/echo [string...]

DESCRIPTION
     The echo utility writes its arguments, separated  by  BLANKs
     and  terminated  by  a  NEWLINE,  to the standard output. If
     there are no arguments, only the NEWLINE character is  writ-
     ten.

     echo is useful for producing diagnostics in  command  files,
     for  sending  known data into a pipe, and for displaying the
     contents of environment variables.

     The C shell, the Korn shell, and the Bourne shell  all  have
     echo built-in commands, which, by default, is invoked if the
     user   calls   echo   without   a   full    pathname.    See
     shell_builtins(1).  sh's echo, ksh's echo, and /usr/bin/echo
     understand the back-slashed escape characters,  except  that
     sh's  echo does not understand \a as the alert character. In
     addition, ksh's echo does not have an -n option. sh's   echo
     and /usr/bin/echo have an -n option if the SYSV3 environment
     variable is set (see  ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES  below).  csh's
     echo  and  /usr/ucb/echo,  on  the  other  hand,  have an -n
     option, but do not understand the back-slashed escape  char-
     acters.  sh and ksh determine whether /usr/ucb/echo is found
     first in the PATH and, if so, they adapt the behavior of the
     echo builtin to match /usr/ucb/echo.

OPERANDS
     The following operand is supported:

     string   A string to be written to standard output.  If  any
              operand  is "-n", it is treated as a string, not an
              option. The following character sequences is recog-
              nized within any of the arguments:

              \a       Alert character.




              \b       Backspace.



              \c       Print line without new-line.  All  charac-
                       ters  following the \c in the argument are
                       ignored.

              \f       Form-feed.



              \n       New-line.



              \r       Carriage return.



              \t       Tab.



              \v       Vertical tab.



              \\       Backslash.



              \0n      Where n is the 8-bit character whose ASCII
                       code is the 1-, 2- or 3-digit octal number
                       representing that character.




USAGE
     Portable applications should not use -n (as the first  argu-
     ment) or escape sequences.

     The printf(1) utility can be used portably to emulate any of
     the traditional behaviors of the echo utility as follows:

       o  The Solaris 2.6  operating  environment  or  compatible
          version's /usr/bin/echo is equivalent to:


          printf "%b\n" "$*"

       o  The /usr/ucb/echo is equivalent to:


          if [ "X$1" = "X-n" ]

          then

                  shift
                  printf "%s" "$*"

          else

                  printf "%s\n" "$*"

          fi


     New applications are encouraged to  use  printf  instead  of
     echo.

EXAMPLES
     Example 1: Finding how far below root your current directory
     is located

     You can use echo to determine how many subdirectories  below
     the  root  directory  (/) is your current directory, as fol-
     lows:

       o  Echo your current-working-directory's full pathname.

       o  Pipe the output through  tr  to  translate  the  path's
          embedded slash-characters into space-characters.

       o  Pipe that output through wc -w for a count of the names
          in your path.


          example% /usr/bin/echo $PWD | tr '/' ' ' | wc -w


     See tr(1) and wc(1) for their functionality.

     Below are the different flavors for echoing a string without
     a NEWLINE:

     Example 2: /usr/bin/echo

     example% /usr/bin/echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

     Example 3: sh/ksh shells

     example$ echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

     Example 4: csh shell

     example% echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"

     Example 5: /usr/ucb/echo


     example% /usr/ucb/echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect the execution of echo: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

     SYSV3    This environment variable is used to provide compa-
              tibility  with INTERACTIVE UNIX System and SCO UNIX
              installation scripts. It is intended  for  compati-
              bility  only and should not be used in new scripts.
              This variable is applicable only  for  Solaris  x86
              platforms, not Solaris SPARC systems.



EXIT STATUS
     The following error values are returned:

     0        Successful completion.



     >0       An error occurred.



ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | Enabled                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     echo(1B),  printf(1),   shell_builtins(1),   tr(1),   wc(1),
     ascii(5), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)

NOTES
     When representing an 8-bit character  by  using  the  escape
     convention  \0n,  the n must always be preceded by the digit
     zero (0).


     For example, typing: echo 'WARNING:\07'  prints  the  phrase
     WARNING:  and sounds the "bell" on your terminal. The use of
     single (or double) quotes (or two backslashes)  is  required
     to protect the "\" that precedes the "07".

     Following the \0, up to three digits are used in  construct-
     ing  the  octal output character. If, following the \0n, you
     want to echo additional digits that  are  not  part  of  the
     octal  representation,  you must use the full 3-digit n. For
     example, if you want to echo "ESC 7" you must use the  three
     digits  "033" rather than just the two digits "33" after the
     \0.

     2 digits         Incorrect:      echo "\0337" | od -xc
                      produces:       df0a                     (hex)
                                      337                      (ascii)
     3 digits         Correct:        echo "\00337" | od -xc
                      produces:       lb37 0a00                (hex)
                                      033 7                    (ascii)

     For the octal equivalents of each character, see ascii(5).










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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