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file


NAME
     file - determine file type

SYNOPSIS
     /usr/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] [-f ffile] file...

     /usr/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] -f ffile

     /usr/bin/file -i [-h] [-f ffile] file...

     /usr/bin/file -i [-h] -f ffile

     /usr/bin/file -c [-d] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile]

     /usr/xpg4/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile]  [-M  Mfile]  [-f ffile]
     file...

     /usr/xpg4/bin/file [-dh] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile] -f ffile

     /usr/xpg4/bin/file -i [-h] [-f ffile] file...

     /usr/xpg4/bin/file -i [-h] -f ffile

     /usr/xpg4/bin/file -c [-d] [-m mfile] [-M Mfile]

DESCRIPTION
     The file utility performs a series of  tests  on  each  file
     supplied  by  file  and,  optionally, on each file listed in
     ffile in an attempt to classify it. If the  file  is  not  a
     regular  file,  its  file type is identified. The file types
     directory, FIFO, block special, and  character  special  are
     identified  as  such.  If the file is a regular file and the
     file is zero-length, it is identified as an empty file.

     If file appears to be a text file, file examines  the  first
     512  bytes  and tries to determine its programming language.
     If file is a symbolic link, by default the link is  followed
     and file tests the file to which the symbolic link refers.

     If file is  a  relocatable  object,  executable,  or  shared
     object,  file  prints  out  information regarding the file's
     execution  requirements.   This  information  includes   the
     machine class, byte-ordering, static or dynamic linkage, and
     any software or hardware capability requirements.

     By default, file will try to use the  localized  magic  file
     /usr/lib/locale/locale/LC_MESSAGES/magic,  if  it exists, to
     identify files that have a magic number. For example, in the
     Japanese     locale,     file     will     try     to    use
     /usr/lib/locale/ja/LC_MESSAGES/magic. If a  localized  magic
     file  does  not exist, file will utilize /etc/magic. A magic
     number is a numeric or string constant  that  indicates  the
     file  type. See magic(4) for an explanation of the format of
     /etc/magic.

     If file does not exist, cannot be read, or its  file  status
     could  not be determined, it is not considered an error that
     affects the exit status. The output will indicate  that  the
     file  was  processed,  but that its type could not be deter-
     mined.

OPTIONS
     The following options are supported:

     -c              Checks the magic file for format errors. For
                     reasons  of  efficiency,  this validation is
                     normally not carried out.



     -d              Applies any position-sensitive and  context-
                     sensitive default system tests to the file.



     -f ffile        ffile contains a list of  the  files  to  be
                     examined.



     -h              When a symbolic link  is  encountered,  this
                     option  identifies  the  file  as a symbolic
                     link. If -h is not specified and file  is  a
                     symbolic  link that refers to a non-existent
                     file, the file utility identifies  the  file
                     as a symbolic link, as if -h had been speci-
                     fied.



     -i              If a file is a  regular  file,  this  option
                     does  not  attempt  to  classify the type of
                     file further, but identifies the file  as  a
                     "regular file".



     -m mfile
                     /usr/bin/file

                         Uses mfile as an alternate  magic  file,
                         instead of /etc/magic.


                     /usr/xpg4/bin/file

                         Specifies the name of a file  containing
                         position-sensitive    tests   that   are
                         applied to a file in order  to  classify
                         it  (see  magic(4)). If the -m option is
                         specified  without  specifying  the   -d
                         option   or  the  -M  option,  position-
                         sensitive  default  system   tests   are
                         applied   after  the  position-sensitive
                         tests specified by the -m option.



     -M Mfile        Specifies the  name  of  a  file  containing
                     position-sensitive tests that are applied to
                     a  file  in  order  to  classify   it   (see
                     magic(4)).   No  position-sensitive  default
                     system tests nor  context-sensitive  default
                     system  tests  are  applied  unless  the  -d
                     option is also specified.



     If the -M option is specified with the  -d  option,  the  -m
     option,  or  both, or if the -m option is specified with the
     -d option, the concatenation of the position-sensitive tests
     specified by these options is applied in the order specified
     by the appearance of these options.

OPERANDS
     The following operands are supported:

     file            A path name of a file to be tested.



USAGE
     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of file
     when encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2
    **31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
     Example 1: Binary executable files

     Determine if an argument is a binary executable file:

     file "$1" | grep -Fq executable &&
               printf "%s is executable.\n" "$1"

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect the execution of file: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
     The following exit values are returned:

     0        Successful completion.



     >0       An error occurred.



FILES
     /etc/magic      file's magic number file



ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | enabled                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     elfdump(1), ls(1), magic(4), attributes(5), environ(5), lar-
     gefile(5), standards(5)










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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