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     growisofs - combined mkisofs frontend/DVD recording program.

     growisofs [-dry-run]  [-dvd-compat]  [-overburn]  [-speed=1]
     -[Z|M] /dev/dvd <mkisofs-options>

     growisofs was originally designed as a frontend  to  mkisofs
     to  facilitate appending of data to ISO9660 volumes residing
     on random-access media such as DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, plain files,
     hard  disk  partitions. In the course of development general
     purpose DVD recording support was implemented, and as of now
     growisofs  supports  not  only random-access media, but even
     mastering of multi-session  DVD  media  such  as  DVD+R  and
     DVD-R/-RW.  In  addition  growisofs  supports first-/single-
     session recording of arbitrary pre-mastered image (formatted
     as  UDF,  ISO9660  or any other file system, if formatted at
     all) to all supported DVD media types.

     -Z /dev/dvd
          Burn an initial session to the selected device. A  spe-
          cial form of this option is recognized to support burn-
          ing of pre-mastered images. See  EXAMPLES  section  for
          further details.

     -M /dev/dvd
          Merge a new session to an existing one.

          Print version information and invoke mkisofs, also with
          -version option.

          Provide    maximum     media     compatibility     with
          DVD-ROM/-Video. In write-once context (DVD+R and DVD-R)
          this results in unappendable recording  (closed  disk).
          In  DVD+RW  context  it  instructs  the logical unit to
          explicitly burn [otherwise optional] lead-out.

          At dry-run growisofs performs all the steps  till,  but
          not  including  the first write operation. Most notably
          check for  "overburn"  condition  is  performed,  which
          implies  that  mkisofs is invoked and terminated prema-

          Normally DVD media can accommodate up to  approximately
          4.700.000.000  bytes  (in  marketing  speech 4.7GB). In
          other words a DVD can contain about 4.377 GiB  or  4482
          MiB.  Growisofs  won't  start  without  this option, if
          "overburn" condition appears to be unavoidable.

          An option to control recording velocity. Most  commonly
          you'll  use  -speed=1 with "no-name" DVD-R[W] media, if
          default speed settings messes up  the  media.  Keep  in
          mind  that  N  essentially  denotes  speed  closest  to
          N*1385KBps among those offered by  unit  for  currently
          mounted  media.  The  list  can  be  found  in  dvd+rw-
          mediainfo output.

          More options can be found in the manpage for mkisofs.

     There're several undocumented options commonly denoted  with
     -use-the-force-luke  prefix.  Some  of  them serve debugging
     purposes. Some require  certain  knowledge  about  recording
     process  or  even  OS kernel internals and as being such can
     induce confusing behaviour. Some are  to  be  used  in  very
     specific  situations  better  recognized  by  front-ends  or
     automated scripts. Rationale behind  leaving  these  options
     undocumented is that those few users who would actually need
     to use them directly can as well consult the source code  or
     obtain specific instructions elsewhere.

     When using growisofs you may not use the -o  option  for  an
     output  file.   growisofs  dumps  the  image directly to the

     You don't have to specify the -C option to create  a  higher
     level  session  on a multi session disk, growisofs will con-
     struct one for you;

     Otherwise everything that applies to [multi-session] master-
     ing  with  mkisofs  applies  to growisofs as well. growisofs
     needs at least mkisofs version 1.14, version 2.0 is required
     for multi-session write-once recordings.

     Actual device  names  vary  from  one  operating  system  to
     another. We use /dev/dvd as a collective name or as symbolic
     link to the actual device if you wish. Under Linux  it  will
     most  likely  be  an  ide-scsi  device  such as "/dev/scd0."
     Under NetBSD/OpenBSD it has to be a  character  SCSI  CD-ROM
     device such as "/dev/rcd0c." Under Solaris it also has to be
     a    character    SCSI/ATAPI     CD-ROM     device,     e.g.
     "/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2" or "/vol/dev/aliases/cdrom0." And like-
     wise in HP-UX and IRIX...

     To master and burn an ISO9660 volume with Joliet  and  Rock-
     Ridge extensions on a DVD:

          growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -R -J /some/files

     To append more data to same DVD:

          growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J /more/files

     Make sure to use the same options for  both  inital  burning
     and following sessions.

     To use growisofs to write a pre-mastered ISO-image to a DVD:

          growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/dvd=image.iso

     where  image.iso  represents  an  arbitrary  object  in  the
     filesystem,  such as file, named pipe or device entry. Noth-
     ing is growing here and command name  is  not  intuitive  in
     this context.

     If executed under sudo(8) growisofs refuses to  start.  This
     is done for the following reason. Naturally growisofs has to
     access the data set to be  recorded  to  DVD  media,  either
     indirectly  by  letting  mkisofs generate ISO9660 layout on-
     the-fly or  directly  if  a  pre-mastered  image  is  to  be
     recorded.  Being  executed  under  sudo(8), growisofs effec-
     tively grants sudoers read access to any file  in  the  file
     system.  The  situation  is  intensified  by  the  fact that
     growisofs parses MKISOFS environment variable  in  order  to
     determine alternative path to mkisofs executable image. This
     means that being executed under  sudo(8),  growisofs  effec-
     tively  grants  sudoers  right  to  execute program of their
     choice with elevated privileges. If you for any reason still
     find the above acceptable and are willing to take the conse-
     quences, then  consider  running  following  wrapper  script
     under sudo(8) in place for real growisofs binary.

          unset SUDO_COMMAND
          export MKISOFS=/path/to/trusted/mkisofs
          exec growisofs "$@"

     But note that the recommended alternative to the above "wor-
     karound"  is  actually to install growisofs set-root-uid, in
     which case it will drop privileges prior accessing  data  or
     executing  mkisofs  in order to preclude unauthorized access
     to the data.

     If the media already carries isofs and growisofs is  invoked
     with  -Z  option  non-interactively,  e.g.  through cron, it
     shall fail with "FATAL:  /dev/dvd  already  carries  isofs!"
     Note  that only ISO9660 is recognized, you can perfectly zap
     e.g. an UDF filesystem non-interactively.

     "Overburn" protection in pre-mastered  image  context  works
     only  with  plain  files and ISO9660 formatted volumes. E.g.
     [given that /dev/root  is  an  ext2  formatted  file  system
     larger  than  4.7GB]  /dev/dvd=/dev/root is bound to produce
     corrupted recording.

     Note that DVD+RW re-formatting procedure does not substitute
     for  blanking.  If  you  want to nullify the media, e.g. for
     privacy  reasons,  do  it  explicitly  with  'growisofs   -Z

     Playback of re-writable DVD media, both DVD+RW  and  DVD-RW,
     might  be  limited  in  legacy DVD-ROM/-Video units. In most
     cases this is due to lower reflectivity of such media.

     Even though growisofs supports it, playback of multi-session
     write-once DVD might be limited to the first session for two

     o    not all DVD-ROM players  are  capable  of  multi-border
          DVD-R  playback,  even  less  are aware of DVD+R multi-
          sessioning, burner unit therefore might be the only one
          in  your vicinity capable of accessing files written at
          different occasions;

     o    OS might fail to mount multi-session  DVD  for  various

     The above is not applicable  to  DVD+RW,  DVD-RW  Restricted
     Overwrite  or  DVD-RAM, as volumes are grown within a single

     Most up-to-date information on dvd+rw-tools is available  at

     The manpage for mkisofs.

     Andy Polyakov <appro@fy.chalmers.se> stands for  programming
     and on-line information.

     This  manpage  is  currently  maintained  by   Huub   Reuver

     growisofs is distributed under GNU GPL.

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    | Availability    SUNWdvdrw       |  |
    | Interface Stability     Unstable|  |

     This utility  is  part  of  dvd+rw-tools.   The  source  for
     dvd+rw-tools   is   available  in  the  SUNWdvdrwS  package.

Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.