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join


NAME
     join - relational database operator

SYNOPSIS
     join [-a filenumber |  -v filenumber]   [-1 fieldnumber]  [-
     2 fieldnumber] [-o list] [-e string] [-t char] file1 file2

     join [-a filenumber] [-j fieldnumber]  [-j1 fieldnumber]  [-
     j2 fieldnumber] [-o list] [-e string] [-t char] file1 file2

DESCRIPTION
     The join command forms, on the standard output,  a  join  of
     the two relations specified by the lines of file1 and file2.

     There is one line in the output for each pair  of  lines  in
     file1  and file2 that have identical join fields. The output
     line normally consists of the common field, then the rest of
     the  line  from file1, then the rest of the line from file2.
     This format can be changed  by  using  the  -o  option  (see
     below).  The -a option can be used to add unmatched lines to
     the output. The  -v  option  can  be  used  to  output  only
     unmatched lines.

     The default input field separators are blank, tab,  or  new-
     line.  In  this case, multiple separators count as one field
     separator, and leading separators are ignored.  The  default
     output field separator is a blank.

     If the input files are  not  in  the  appropriate  collating
     sequence, the results are unspecified.

OPTIONS
     Some of the options below use the argument filenumber.  This
     argument  should  be a 1 or a 2 referring to either file1 or
     file2, respectively.

     -a filenumber           In addition to  the  normal  output,
                             produce  a  line for each unpairable
                             line  in  file   filenumber,   where
                             filenumber  is  1 or 2. If both -a 1
                             and -a 2 are specified, all  unpair-
                             able lines will be output.



     -e string               Replace empty output fields  in  the
                             list  selected by option -o with the
                             string string.




     -j fieldnumber          Equivalent to -1fieldnumber -2field-
                             number.



     -j1 fieldnumber         Equivalent to -1fieldnumber.



     -j2 fieldnumber         Equivalent to -2fieldnumber.  Fields
                             are numbered starting with 1.



     -o list                 Each output line includes the fields
                             specified  in  list. Fields selected
                             by list that do not  appear  in  the
                             input  will be treated as empty out-
                             put fields.  (See  the  -e  option.)
                             Each element of which has the either
                             the form filenumber.fieldnumber,  or
                             0,  which represents the join field.
                             The  common  field  is  not  printed
                             unless specifically requested.



     -t char                 Use character char as  a  separator.
                             Every  appearance  of char in a line
                             is significant. The  character  char
                             is  used  as the field separator for
                             both input  and  output.  With  this
                             option specified, the collating term
                             should be the same as  sort  without
                             the -b option.



     -v filenumber           Instead of the default output,  pro-
                             duce a line only for each unpairable
                             line in filenumber, where filenumber
                             is 1 or 2. If both -v 1 and -v 2 are
                             specified, all unpairable lines will
                             be output.



     -1 fieldnumber          Join on the fieldnumberth  field  of
                             file  1. Fields are decimal integers
                             starting with 1.


     -2fieldnumber           Join on the fieldnumberth  field  of
                             file  2. Fields are decimal integers
                             starting with 1.



OPERANDS
     The following operands are supported:

     file1


     file2    A path name of a file to be joined.  If  either  of
              the  file1  or  file2  operands  is -, the standard
              input is used in its place.



     file1 and file2  must  be  sorted  in  increasing  collating
     sequence  as determined by LC_COLLATE on the fields on which
     they are to be joined, normally the first in each line  (see
     sort(1)).

USAGE
     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of join
     when  encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2
    **31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
     Example 1: Joining the password file and group file

     The following command line will join the password  file  and
     the  group  file, matching on the numeric group ID, and out-
     putting the login name, the group name and the login  direc-
     tory. It is assumed that the files have been sorted in ASCII
     collating sequence on the group ID fields.

     example% join -j1 4-j2 3 -o 1.1 2.1 1.6 -t:/etc/passwd /etc/group

     Example 2: Using the -o option

     The -o 0 field essentially selects the  union  of  the  join
     fields. For example, given file phone:

     !Name           Phone Number
     Don             +1 123-456-7890
     Hal             +1 234-567-8901
     Yasushi         +2 345-678-9012

     and file fax:


     !Name           Fax Number

     Don             +1 123-456-7899

     Keith           +1 456-789-0122

     Yasushi         +2 345-678-9011

     where the large expanses of white space are  meant  to  each
     represent a single tab character), the command:

     example% join -t"tab" -a 1 -a 2 -e '(unknown)' -o 0,1.2,2.2 phone fax

     would produce

     !Name           Phone Number           Fax Number
     Don             +1 123-456-7890         +1 123-456-7899
     Hal             +1 234-567-8901         (unknown
     Keith           (unknown)               +1 456-789-012
     Yasushi         +2 345-678-9012         +2 345-678-9011

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect the execution of join: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_COLLATE, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
     The following exit values are returned:

     0        All input files were output successfully.



     >0       An error occurred.



ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | Enabled                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     awk(1),   comm(1),    sort(1),    uniq(1),    attributes(5),
     environ(5), largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
     With default field separation,  the  collating  sequence  is
     that  of  sort  -b; with -t, the sequence is that of a plain
     sort.

     The conventions of the join, sort, comm, uniq, and awk  com-
     mands are wildly incongruous.










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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