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mailx


NAME
     mailx - interactive message processing system

SYNOPSIS
     mailx [-BdeHiInNURvV~] [ -f
      [file | +folder] ] [-T file] [-u user]

     mailx [-BdFintUv~] [-b bcc] [-c cc] [-h number] [-r address]
     [-s subject] recipient...

     /usr/ucb/mail ...

     /usr/ucb/Mail ...

DESCRIPTION
     The mail utilities listed above provide a comfortable, flex-
     ible  environment  for  sending  and receiving mail messages
     electronically.

     When reading mail, the mail utilities  provide  commands  to
     facilitate  saving,  deleting,  and  responding to messages.
     When sending mail, the mail utilities allow editing, review-
     ing and other modification of the message as it is entered.

     Incoming mail is stored in a standard file  for  each  user,
     called  the  mailbox  for that user. When the mail utilities
     are called to read messages,  the  mailbox  is  the  default
     place to find them. As messages are read, they are marked to
     be moved to a secondary file for  storage,  unless  specific
     action  is  taken,  so  that  the  messages need not be seen
     again.This secondary file is called the mbox and is normally
     located  in  the user's HOME directory (see MBOX in ENVIRON-
     MENT VARIABLES for a description of this file). Messages can
     be  saved  in  other secondary files named by the user. Mes-
     sages remain in a secondary file until forcibly removed.

     The user can access a secondary file by using the -f option.
     Messages in the secondary file can then be read or otherwise
     processed using the same Commands as in the primary mailbox.
     This  gives  rise  within  these  pages  to  the notion of a
     current mailbox.

OPTIONS
     On the command line options start with a dash (-). Any other
     arguments  are  taken to be destinations (recipients). If no
     recipients are specified, mailx attempts  to  read  messages
     from the mailbox.

     -B              Do not buffer  standard  input  or  standard
                     output.


     -b bcc          Set the blind carbon copy list to  bcc.  bcc
                     should  be enclosed in quotes if it contains
                     more than one name.



     -c cc           Set the carbon copy list to cc. cc should be
                     enclosed  in quotes if it contains more than
                     one name.



     -d              Turn on debugging output. (Neither  particu-
                     larly interesting nor recommended.)



     -e              Test for the presence of mail. mailx  prints
                     nothing  and  exits with a successful return
                     code if there is mail to read.



     -F              Record the message in a file named after the
                     first  recipient. Overrides the record vari-
                     able, if set (see Internal Variables).



     -f [file]       Read messages from file instead of  mailbox.
                     If no file is specified, the mbox is used.



     -f [ +folder]   Use the file folder in the folder  directory
                     (same  as  the  folder command). The name of
                     this directory is listed in the folder vari-
                     able.



     -H              Print header summary only.



     -h number       The number of network "hops"  made  so  far.
                     This  is  provided  for  network software to
                     avoid infinite delivery loops.  This  option
                     and  its argument are passed to the delivery
                     program.


     -I              Include the newsgroup and article-id  header
                     lines  when  printing  mail  messages.  This
                     option requires the -f option to  be  speci-
                     fied.



     -i              Ignore interrupts. See also ignore in Inter-
                     nal Variables.



     -N              Do not print initial header summary.



     -n              Do not initialize from  the  system  default
                     mailx.rc or Mail.rc file.  See USAGE.



     -r address      Use  address  as  the  return  address  when
                     invoking  the  delivery  program.  All tilde
                     commands are disabled. This option  and  its
                     argument is passed to the delivery program.



     -s subject      Set the Subject  header  field  to  subject.
                     subject  should  be enclosed in quotes if it
                     contains embedded white space.



     -T file         Message-id and article-id header  lines  are
                     recorded  in file after the message is read.
                     This option also sets the -I option.



     -t              Scan  the  input  for  To:,  Cc:,  and  Bcc:
                     fields.  Any  recipients on the command line
                     will be ignored.



     -U              Convert  UUCP-style  addresses  to  internet
                     standards.   Overrides  the conv environment
                     variable.



     -u user         Read user's mailbox. This is only  effective
                     if user's mailbox is not read protected.



     -V              Print the mailx version number and exit.



     -v              Pass the -v flag to sendmail(1M).



     -~              Interpret tilde escapes in the input even if
                     not reading from a tty.



OPERANDS
     The following operands are supported:

     recipient       Addressee of message.



USAGE
  Starting Mail
     At startup time, mailx  executes  the  system  startup  file
     /etc/mail/mailx.rc.  If  invoked as mail or Mail, the system
     startup file /etc/mail/Mail.rc is used instead.

     The system startup file sets  up initial display options and
     alias  lists  and assigns values to some internal variables.
     These variables are flags and valued  parameters  which  are
     set and cleared using the set and unset commands. See Inter-
     nal Variables.

     With the following exceptions, regular  commands  are  legal
     inside  startup  files:  !,  Copy, edit, followup, Followup,
     hold, mail, preserve, reply, Reply, shell,  and  visual.  An
     error  in the startup file causes the remaining lines in the
     file to be ignored.

     After executing the system startup file,  the mail utilities
     execute  the  optional  personal startup file $HOME/.mailrc,
     wherein the user can override the  values  of  the  internal
     variables as set by the system startup file.

     If the -n option is specified, however, the  mail  utilities
     do not execute the system startup file.


     Many system administrators include the commands

     set appenddeadletter
     unset replyall
     unset pipeignore

     in the system startup files  (to  be  compatible  with  past
     Solaris behavior), but this does not meet standards require-
     ments for mailx. To get standard behavior for  mailx,  users
     should  use  the -n option or include the following commands
     in a personal startup file:

     unset appenddeadletter
     set replyall
     set pipeignore

     When reading mail, the mail utilities are in command mode. A
     header  summary  of the first several messages is displayed,
     followed by a  prompt  indicating  the  mail  utilities  can
     accept  regular  commands (see Commands below). When sending
     mail, the mail utilities are in input mode. If no subject is
     specified  on  the  command line, and the asksub variable is
     set, a prompt for the subject is printed.

     As the message is typed, the mail utilities read the message
     and store it in a temporary file. Commands may be entered by
     beginning a line with the tilde (~)  escape  character  fol-
     lowed by a single command letter and optional arguments. See
     Tilde Escapes for a summary of these commands.

  Reading Mail
     Each message is assigned a sequential number, and  there  is
     at  any  time  the  notion of a current message, marked by a
     right angle bracket (>) in the header summary. Many commands
     take  an optional list of messages (message-list) to operate
     on.  In most cases,  the  current  message  is  set  to  the
     highest-numbered  message  in  the list after the command is
     finished executing.

     The default for  message-list  is  the  current  message.  A
     message-list  is  a list of message identifiers separated by
     spaces, which may include:

     n               Message number n.



     .               The current message.




     ^               The first undeleted message.



     $               The last message.



     *               All messages.



     +               The next undeleted message.



     -               The previous undeleted message.



     n-m             An inclusive range of message numbers.



     user            All messages from user.



     /string         All messages with string in the Subject line
                     (case ignored).



     :c              All messages of type c, where c is one of:

                     d        deleted messages




                     n        new messages



                     o        old messages



                     r        read messages



                     u        unread messages



                     Notice  that  the  context  of  the  command
                     determines  whether  this  type  of  message
                     specification makes sense.


     Other arguments are usually arbitrary  strings  whose  usage
     depends  on the command involved. Filenames, where expected,
     are expanded using the normal shell conventions (see sh(1)).
     Special  characters  are  recognized by certain commands and
     are documented with the commands below.

  Sending Mail
     Recipients listed on the command line may be of three types:
     login  names,  shell  commands, or alias groups. Login names
     may be any network address, including mixed network address-
     ing.  If  mail  is  found to be undeliverable, an attempt is
     made to return it to the sender's mailbox. If the  recipient
     name  begins  with a pipe symbol ( | ), the rest of the name
     is taken to be a shell command to pipe the message  through.
     This  provides  an automatic interface with any program that
     reads the standard input, such as lp(1) for recording outgo-
     ing mail on paper. Alias groups are set by the alias command
     (see Commands below) or in a system startup file (for  exam-
     ple,  $HOME/.mailrc). Aliases are lists of recipients of any
     type.

  Forwarding Mail
     To forward a specific message, include it in  a  message  to
     the  desired recipients with the ~f or ~m tilde escapes. See
     Tilde Escapes below. To forward mail  automatically,  add  a
     comma-separated  list of addresses for additional recipients
     to the .forward file in your home directory.  This  is  dif-
     ferent  from  the format of the alias command, which takes a
     space-separated list  instead.  Note:  Forwarding  addresses
     must  be  valid,  or the messages will "bounce." You cannot,
     for instance, reroute your mail to a new host by  forwarding
     it  to  your  new address if it is not yet listed in the NIS
     aliases domain.

  Commands
     Regular commands are of the form


     [ command ] [ message-list ] [ arguments ]


     In input mode, commands are recognized by the escape charac-
     ter,  tilde(~),  and lines not treated as commands are taken
     as input for the message. If no command is specified in com-
     mand mode, next is assumed. The following is a complete list
     of mailx commands:

     !shell-command

         Escape to the shell. See SHELL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.



     # comment

         NULL command (comment). Useful in mailrc files.



     =

         Print the current message number.



     ?

         Prints a summary of commands.



     alias alias name ...
     group alias name ...

         Declare an alias for the given names. The names are sub-
         stituted  when  alias  is used as a recipient. Useful in
         the mailrc file. With no arguments, the command displays
         the list of defined aliases.




     alternates name ...

         Declare a list of alternate names for your  login.  When
         responding  to  a  message, these names are removed from
         the list of recipients for the response. With  no  argu-
         ments,  print  the  current list of alternate names. See
         also allnet in Internal Variables.



     cd [directory]
     chdir [directory]

         Change directory. If directory is not  specified,  $HOME
         is used.




     copy [file]
     copy [message-list] file

         Copy messages to the file without marking  the  messages
         as saved. Otherwise equivalent to the save command.




     Copy [message-list]

         Save the specified messages in  a  file  whose  name  is
         derived  from  the  author  of  the message to be saved,
         without  marking  the  messages  as   saved.   Otherwise
         equivalent to the Save command.



     delete [message-list]

         Delete messages from the mailbox. If autoprint  is  set,
         the  next  message after the last one deleted is printed
         (see Internal Variables).



     discard [header-field...]
     ignore [header-field...]

         Suppress printing of the specified  header  fields  when
         displaying  messages  on  the screen. Examples of header
         fields to ignore are Status and Received. The fields are
         included when the message is saved, unless the alwaysig-
         nore variable is set. The More, Page,  Print,  and  Type
         commands  override  this command. If no header is speci-
         fied, the current list of header fields being ignored is
         printed. See also the undiscard and unignore commands.




     dp [message-list]
     dt [message-list]

         Delete the specified messages from the mailbox and print
         the  next  message  after  the last one deleted. Roughly
         equivalent to a delete command followed by a print  com-
         mand.




     echo string ...

         Echo the given strings (like echo(1)).



     edit [message-list]

         Edit the given messages. Each message  is  placed  in  a
         temporary file and the program named by the EDITOR vari-
         able is invoked to edit it (see ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES).
         Default editor is ed(1).



     exit
     xit

         Exit from mailx, without changing the mailbox.  No  mes-
         sages are saved in the mbox (see also quit).




     field [message-list] header-file

         Display the value of the header field in  the  specified
         message.



     file [file]
     folder [file]

         Quit from the current file of messages and read  in  the
         specified  file.  Several  special characters are recog-
         nized when used as file names:

         %        the current mailbox.





         %user    the mailbox for user.

         #        the previous mail file.



         &        the current mbox.



         +file    The named file in the folder directory  (listed
                  in the folder variable).



         With no arguments, print the name of  the  current  mail
         file,  and the number of messages and characters it con-
         tains.


     folders

         Print the names of the files in the directory set by the
         folder variable (see Internal Variables).



     Followup [message]

         Respond to a message, recording the response in  a  file
         whose  name  is  derived from the author of the message.
         Overrides the record variable, if set. If  the  replyall
         variable  is  set,  the actions of Followup and followup
         are reversed. See also the followup, Save, and Copy com-
         mands  and  outfolder  in  Internal  Variables,  and the
         Starting Mail section in USAGE above.



     followup [message-list]

         Respond to the first message in the message-list,  send-
         ing  the  message  to  the author of each message in the
         message-list. The subject line is taken from  the  first
         message  and  the  response  is recorded in a file whose
         name is derived from the author of the first message. If
         the  replyall  variable  is set, the actions of followup
         and Followup are reversed. See also the Followup,  Save,
         and  Copy  commands and outfolder in Internal Variables,
         and the Starting Mail section in USAGE above.




     from [message-list]

         Print the header summary for the specified messages.  If
         no  messages are specified, print the header summary for
         the current message.



     group alias name ...
     alias alias name ...

         Declare an alias for the given names. The names are sub-
         stituted  when  alias  is used as a recipient. Useful in
         the mailrc file.




     headers [message]

         Print the page of headers  which  includes  the  message
         specified.  The  screen  variable  sets  the  number  of
         headers per page (see Internal Variables). See also  the
         z command.



     help

         Print a summary of commands.



     hold [message-list]
     preserve [message-list]

         Hold the specified messages in the mailbox.




     if s | r | t
     mail-commands

     else
     mail-commands

     endif

         Conditional execution, where s executes following  mail-
         commands,  up  to an else or endif, if the program is in
         send mode, r causes the  mail-commands  to  be  executed
         only  in receive mode, and t causes the mail-commands to
         be executed only if mailx is being run from a  terminal.
         Useful in the mailrc file.









     inc

         Incorporate messages that arrive while you  are  reading
         the  system  mailbox.  The new messages are added to the
         message list in the current mail session.  This  command
         does  not  commit  changes  made during the session, and
         prior messages are not renumbered.



     ignore [header-field ...]
     discard [header-field ...]

         Suppress printing of the specified  header  fields  when
         displaying  messages  on  the screen. Examples of header
         fields to ignore are  Status  and  Cc.  All  fields  are
         included  when  the  message  is  saved. The More, Page,
         Print and Type commands override  this  command.  If  no
         header  is  specified, the current list of header fields
         being ignored is printed. See  also  the  undiscard  and
         unignore commands.




     list

         Print all commands available. No explanation is given.



     load

         [message] file The specified message is replaced by  the
         message  in the named file. file should contain a single
         mail message including mail headers  (as  saved  by  the
         save command).



     mail recipient ...

         Mail a message to the specified recipients.



     Mail recipient

         Mail a message to the specified recipients,  and  record
         it  in  a  file whose name is derived from the author of
         the message. Overrides the record variable, if set.  See
         also  the Save and Copy commands and outfolder in Inter-
         nal Variables.



     mbox [message-list]

         Arrange for the given messages to end up in the standard
         mbox  save file when mailx terminates normally. See MBOX
         in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for a description of this file.
         See also the exit and quit commands.



     more [message-list]
     page [message-list]

         Print the specified messages. If crt is  set,  the  mes-
         sages  longer  than the number of lines specified by the
         crt variable are paged through the command specified  by
         the  PAGER  variable. The default command is pg(1) or if
         the bsdcompat variable is set, the default  is  more(1).
         See  ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES.  Same as the print and type
         commands.




     More [message-list]
     Page [message-list]

         Print the specified messages on  the  screen,  including
         all  header  fields.  Overrides suppression of fields by
         the ignore command. Same as the Print and Type commands.




     new [message-list]
     New [message-list]
     unread [message-list]
     Unread

         [message-list] Take a message list and mark each message
         as not having been read.






     next [message]

         Go to the next message matching message. If  message  is
         not  supplied,  this command finds the next message that
         was not deleted or saved. A message-list may  be  speci-
         fied,  but  in  this case the first valid message in the
         list is the only one used. This is useful for jumping to
         the  next  message  from a specific user, since the name
         would be taken as a command in the  absence  of  a  real
         command.  See the discussion of message-list above for a
         description of possible message specifications.



     pipe [message-list] [shell-command]
     | [message-list] [shell-command]

         Pipe the message through the  given  shell-command.  The
         message  is  treated as if it were read. If no arguments
         are given, the current message is piped through the com-
         mand  specified by the value of the cmd variable. If the
         page variable is set, a form feed character is  inserted
         after each message (see Internal Variables).




     preserve [message-list]
     hold [message-list]

         Preserve the specified messages in the mailbox.




     print [message-list]
     type [message-list]

         Print the specified messages. If crt is  set,  the  mes-
         sages  longer  than the number of lines specified by the
         crt variable are paged through the command specified  by
         the  PAGER  variable. The default command is pg(1) or if
         the bsdcompat variable is set, the default  is  more(1).
         See  ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES.  Same  as the more and page
         commands.




     Print [message-list]
     Type [message-list]

         Print the specified messages on  the  screen,  including
         all  header  fields.  Overrides suppression of fields by
         the ignore command.  Same as the More and Page commands.




     put [file]
     put [message-list] file

         Save the specified message in the given  file.  Use  the
         same  conventions  as the print command for which header
         fields are ignored.




     Put [file]
     Put [message-list] file

         Save the specified message in the given file.  Overrides
         suppression of fields by the ignore command.




     quit

         Exit from mailx, storing messages that were read in mbox
         and  unread  messages in the mailbox. Messages that have
         been explicitly saved in a file are deleted  unless  the
         keepsave variable is set.



     reply [message-list]
     respond [message-list]
     replysender [message-list]

         Send a response to the author of  each  message  in  the
         message-list.  The  subject line is taken from the first
         message.  If record is set to a  file,  a  copy  of  the
         reply is added to that file. If the replyall variable is
         set, the actions of Reply/Respond and reply/respond  are
         reversed. The replysender command is not affected by the
         replyall variable, but sends  each  reply  only  to  the
         sender of each message. See the Starting Mail section in
         USAGE above.





     Reply [message]
     Respond [message]
     replyall [message]

         Reply to the  specified  message,  including  all  other
         recipients  of  that message.  If the variable record is
         set to a file, a copy of the reply added to  that  file.
         If   the  replyall  variable  is  set,  the  actions  of
         Reply/Respond  and  reply/respond  are   reversed.   The
         replyall  command  is not affected by the replyall vari-
         able, but always sends the reply to  all  recipients  of
         the  message.  See  the  Starting  Mail section in USAGE
         above.





     retain

         Add the list of header  fields  named  to  the  retained
         list.  Only  the  header  fields  in the retain list are
         shown on your terminal when you  print  a  message.  All
         other header fields are suppressed.  The set of retained
         fields specified by the  retain  command  overrides  any
         list  of ignored fields specified by the ignore command.
         The Type and Print commands can be used to print a  mes-
         sage  in  its  entirety.  If  retain is executed with no
         arguments, it lists the current set of retained fields.



     Save [message-list]

         Save the specified messages in  a  file  whose  name  is
         derived  from  the author of the first message. The name
         of the file is taken to be the author's  name  with  all
         network addressing stripped off. See also the Copy, fol-
         lowup, and Followup commands and outfolder  in  Internal
         Variables.

     save [file]
     save [message-list] file

         Save the specified messages in the given file. The  file
         is  created  if  it does not exist. The file defaults to
         mbox. The message is deleted from the mailbox when mailx
         terminates  unless  keepsave  is  set (see also Internal
         Variables and the exit and quit commands).




     set
     set variable
     set variable=string
     set variable=number

         Define a  variable.  To  assign  a  value  to  variable,
         separate  the  variable  name  from  the value by an `='
         (there must be no space before  or  after  the  `=').  A
         variable  may be given a null, string, or numeric value.
         To embed SPACE characters within a value, enclose it  in
         quotes.

         With no arguments, set displays  all  defined  variables
         and  any  values they might have. See Internal Variables
         for a description of all predefined mail variables.






     shell

         Invoke an interactive shell. See also SHELL in  ENVIRON-
         MENT VARIABLES.



     size [message-list]

         Print the size in characters of the specified messages.



     source file

         Read commands from the given file and return to  command
         mode.


     top [message-list]

         Print the top few lines of the  specified  messages.  If
         the  toplines variable is set, it is taken as the number
         of lines to print (see Internal Variables). The  default
         is 5.



     touch [message-list]

         Touch  the  specified  messages.  If  any   message   in
         message-list  is not specifically saved in a file, it is
         placed in the mbox, or the file specified  in  the  MBOX
         environment  variable, upon normal termination. See exit
         and quit.



     Type [message-list]
     Print [message-list]

         Print the specified messages on  the  screen,  including
         all  header  fields.  Overrides suppression of fields by
         the ignore command.




     type [message-list]
     print [message-list]

         Print the specified messages. If crt is  set,  the  mes-
         sages  longer  than the number of lines specified by the
         crt variable are paged through the command specified  by
         the  PAGER  variable.  The default command is pg(1). See
         ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.




     unalias [alias] ...
     ungroup [alias] ...

         Remove the definitions of the specified aliases.




     undelete [message-list]

         Restore  the  specified  deleted  messages.  Will   only
         restore messages deleted in the current mail session. If
         autoprint is set, the last message of those restored  is
         printed (see Internal Variables).



     undiscard [header-field...]
     unignore [header-field...]

         Remove the specified header fields from the  list  being
         ignored.  If  no header fields are specified, all header
         fields are removed from the list being ignored.




     unretain [header-field...]

         Remove the specified header fields from the  list  being
         retained.  If no header fields are specified, all header
         fields are removed from the list being retained.



     unread [message-list]
     Unread [message-list] Same as the new command.





     unset variable...

         Erase the  specified  variables.  If  the  variable  was
         imported  from  the environment (that is, an environment
         variable or exported shell variable), it cannot be unset
         from within mailx.



     version

         Print the current version and release date of the  mailx
         utility.



     visual [message-list]

         Edit the given messages with a screen editor. Each  mes-
         sages  is  placed  in  a  temporary file and the program
         named by the VISUAL variable is invoked to edit it  (see
         ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES).  Notice that the default visual
         editor is vi.



     write [message-list] file

         Write the given messages on the  specified  file,  minus
         the header and trailing blank line. Otherwise equivalent
         to the save command.



     xit
     exit

         Exit from mailx, without changing the mailbox.  No  mes-
         sages are saved in the mbox (see also quit).




     z[+|-]

         Scroll  the  header  display  forward  or  backward  one
         screen-full.  The  number of headers displayed is set by
         the screen variable (see Internal Variables).



  Tilde Escapes
     The following tilde escape commands can be used when compos-
     ing mail to send. These may be entered only from input mode,
     by beginning a line with the tilde escape character (~). See
     escape in Internal Variables for changing this special char-
     acter. The escape character can be entered as text by typing
     it twice.

     ~!shell-command         Escape to the shell. If present, run
                             shell-command.



     ~.                      Simulate end of file (terminate mes-
                             sage input).



     ~:mail-command          Perform the  command-level  request.
     ~_mail-command          Valid  only  when  sending a message
                             while reading mail.

     ~?                      Print a summary of tilde escapes.



     ~A                      Insert  the  autograph  string  Sign
                             into the message (see Internal Vari-
                             ables).



     ~a                      Insert  the  autograph  string  sign
                             into the message (see Internal Vari-
                             ables).



     ~b name ...             Add the names to  the  blind  carbon
                             copy  (Bcc)  list.  This is like the
                             carbon copy (Cc) list,  except  that
                             the  names  in  the Bcc list are not
                             shown in the header of the mail mes-
                             sage.



     ~c name ...             Add the names  to  the  carbon  copy
                             (Cc) list.



     ~d                      Read in the  dead-letter  file.  See
                             DEAD  in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for a
                             description of this file.



     ~e                      Invoke the  editor  on  the  partial
                             message. See also EDITOR in ENVIRON-
                             MENT VARIABLES.



     ~f [message-list]       Forward the  specified  message,  or
                             the   current  message  being  read.
                             Valid only when  sending  a  message
                             while reading mail. The messages are
                             inserted into  the  message  without
                             alteration  (as  opposed  to  the ~m
                             escape).



     ~F [message-list]       Forward the  specified  message,  or
                             the   current  message  being  read,
                             including all header  fields.  Over-
                             rides  the  suppression of fields by
                             the ignore command.



     ~h                      Prompt for Subject line and To,  Cc,
                             and  Bcc  lists.  If  the  field  is
                             displayed with an initial value,  it
                             may  be  edited  as  if you had just
                             typed it.



     ~i variable             Insert the value of the named  vari-
                             able  into  the text of the message.
                             For example, ~A is equivalent to `~i
                             Sign.' Environment variables set and
                             exported  in  the  shell  are   also
                             accessible by ~i.



     ~m [message-list]       Insert the listed messages,  or  the
                             current  message being read into the
                             letter. Valid only  when  sending  a
                             message while reading mail. The text
                             of the message  is  shifted  to  the
                             right,  and  the string contained in
                             the   indentprefix    variable    is
                             inserted  as the leftmost characters
                             of each line. If indentprefix is not
                             set,  a  TAB  character  is inserted
                             into each line.



     ~M [message-list]       Insert the listed messages,  or  the
                             current  message being read, includ-
                             ing  the  header  fields,  into  the
                             letter.  Valid  only  when sending a
                             message while reading mail. The text
                             of  the  message  is  shifted to the
                             right, and the string  contained  in
                             the    indentprefix    variable   is
                             inserted as the leftmost  characters
                             of each line. If indentprefix is not
                             set, a  TAB  character  is  inserted
                             into   each   line.   Overrides  the
                             suppression of fields by the  ignore
                             command.



     ~p                      Print the message being entered.



     ~q                      Quit from input mode  by  simulating
                             an  interrupt.  If  the  body of the
                             message is  not  null,  the  partial
                             message is saved in dead-letter. See
                             DEAD in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES for  a
                             description of this file.



     ~R                      Mark message for return receipt.



     ~r file                 Read in the specified file.  If  the
     ~< file                 argument  begins with an exclamation
     ~< ! shell-command      point (!), the rest of the string is
                             taken  as an arbitrary shell command
                             and is executed, with  the  standard
                             output inserted into the message.





     ~s string ...           Set the subject line to string.



     ~t name ...             Add the given names to the To list.



     ~v                      Invoke a preferred screen editor  on
                             the  partial  message.  The  default
                             visual editor  is  vi(1).  See  also
                             VISUAL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.



     ~w file                 Write the  message  into  the  given
                             file, without the header.



     ~x                      Exit as with ~q except  the  message
                             is not saved in dead-letter.



     ~| shell-command        Pipe the body of the message through
                             the   given  shell-command.  If  the
                             shell-command returns  a  successful
                             exit  status, the output of the com-
                             mand replaces the message.



  Internal Variables
     The following variables are internal variables. They may  be
     imported from the execution environment or set using the set
     command at any time. The unset command may be used to  erase
     variables.

     allnet                  All network names  whose  last  com-
                             ponent   (login   name)   match  are
                             treated as  identical.  This  causes
                             the  message-list message specifica-
                             tions to behave similarly.  Disabled
                             by  default. See also the alternates
                             command and the metoo and fuzzymatch
                             variables.



     alwaysignore            Ignore  header  fields  with  ignore
                             everywhere, not just during print or
                             type. Affects the save, Save,  copy,
                             Copy, top, pipe, and write commands,
                             and the ~m  and  ~f  tilde  escapes.
                             Enabled by default.



     append                  Upon termination, append messages to
                             the  end of the mbox file instead of
                             prepending them.  Although  disabled
                             by  default,  append  is  set in the
                             system startup file  (which  can  be
                             suppressed  with the -n command line
                             option).



     appenddeadletter        Append to the deadletter file rather
                             than overwrite it. Although disabled
                             by   default,  appenddeadletter   is
                             frequently set in the system startup
                             file. See  Starting  Mail  in  USAGE
                             above.



     askbcc                  Prompt for the Bcc  list  after  the
                             Subject  is  entered  if  it  is not
                             specified on the command  line  with
                             the -b option. Disabled by default.



     askcc                   Prompt for the  Cc  list  after  the
                             Subject  is  entered  if  it  is not
                             specified on the command  line  with
                             the -c option. Disabled by default.



     asksub                  Prompt for  subject  if  it  is  not
                             specified  on  the command line with
                             the -s option. Enabled by default.



     autoinc                 Automatically incorporate  new  mes-
                             sages  into  the  current session as
                             they  arrive.  This  has  an  affect
                             similar  to  issuing the inc command
                             every time  the  command  prompt  is
                             displayed.  Disabled by default, but
                             autoinc is set in the default system
                             startup  file  for  mailx; it is not
                             set     for     /usr/ucb/mail     or
                             /usr/ucb/Mail.



     autoprint               Enable automatic  printing  of  mes-
                             sages after delete and undelete com-
                             mands. Disabled by default.



     bang                    Enable the special-casing of  excla-
                             mation  points  (!)  in shell escape
                             command lines as in vi(1).  Disabled
                             by default.



     bsdcompat               Set  automatically   if   mailx   is
                             invoked  as  mail  or  Mail.  Causes
                             mailx to  use  /etc/mail/Mail.rc  as
                             the system startup file. Changes the
                             default pager to more(1).



     cmd=shell-command       Set the default command for the pipe
                             command.  No default value.



     conv=conversion         Convert uucp addresses to the speci-
                             fied  address  style,  which  can be
                             either:


                             internet        This requires a mail
                                             delivery     program
                                             conforming  to   the
                                             RFC822  standard for
                                             electronic      mail
                                             addressing.




                             optimize        Remove   loops    in
                                             uucp(1C)     address
                                             paths     (typically
                                             generated   by   the
                                             reply command).   No
                                             rerouting   is  per-
                                             formed; mail has  no
                                             knowledge   of  UUCP
                                             routes  or   connec-
                                             tions.


                             Conversion is disabled  by  default.
                             See  also  sendmail(1M)  and  the -U
                             command-line option.


     crt[=number]            Pipe  messages  having   more   than
                             number  lines  through  the  command
                             specified by the value of the  PAGER
                             variable   (  pg(1)  or  more(1)  by
                             default). If number  is  not  speci-
                             fied,  the  current  window  size is
                             used. Disabled by default.

     debug                   Enable   verbose   diagnostics   for
                             debugging.    Messages    are    not
                             delivered. Disabled by default.



     dot                     Take a period on a line  by  itself,
                             or  EOF during input from a terminal
                             as end-of-file. Disabled by default,
                             but dot is set in the system startup
                             file (which can be  suppressed  with
                             the -n command line option).



     fcc                     By default,  mailx  will  treat  any
                             address  containing  a  slash  ("/")
                             character as a local "send to  file"
                             address.  By  unsetting this option,
                             this behavior is  disabled.  Enabled
                             by default.



     flipr                   Reverse   the    effect    of    the
                             followup/Followup   and  reply/Reply
                             command pairs.  If  both  flipr  and
                             replyall  are  set, the effect is as
                             if neither was set.



     from                    Extract the  author  listed  in  the
                             header summary from the From: header
                             instead  of  the  UNIX  From   line.
                             Enabled by default.



     fuzzymatch              The from command searches  for  mes-
                             sages  from the indicated sender. By
                             default,  the  full  sender  address
                             must  be  specified. By setting this
                             option, only  a  sub-string  of  the
                             sender  address  need  be specified.
                             Disabled by default.



     escape=c                Substitute c for the ~ escape  char-
                             acter.  Takes  effect with next mes-
                             sage sent.

     folder=directory        The directory  for  saving  standard
                             mail   files.   User-specified  file
                             names beginning with a plus (+)  are
                             expanded  by preceding the file name
                             with this directory name  to  obtain
                             the  real  file  name.  If directory
                             does not start  with  a  slash  (/),
                             $HOME  is prepended to it.  There is
                             no default for the folder  variable.
                             See also outfolder below.



     header                  Enable printing of the  header  sum-
                             mary when entering mailx. Enabled by
                             default.



     hold                    Preserve all messages that are  read
                             in  the  mailbox  instead of putting
                             them in the standard mbox save file.
                             Disabled by default.



     ignore                  Ignore  interrupts  while   entering
                             messages.  Handy  for  noisy dial-up
                             lines. Disabled by default.



     ignoreeof               Ignore  end-of-file  during  message
                             input. Input must be terminated by a
                             period (.) on a line by itself or by
                             the  ~. command. See also dot above.
                             Disabled by default.



     indentprefix=string     When indentprefix is set, string  is
                             used  to  mark  indented  lines from
                             messages  included  with   ~m.   The
                             default is a TAB character.



     keep                    When the mailbox is empty,  truncate
                             it  to zero length instead of remov-
                             ing it. Disabled by default.


     iprompt=string          The  specified  prompt   string   is
                             displayed  before each line on input
                             is requested when sending a message.



     keepsave                Keep messages that have  been  saved
                             in   other   files  in  the  mailbox
                             instead of deleting  them.  Disabled
                             by default.



     makeremote              When replying to all recipients of a
                             message,  if  an  address  does  not
                             include  a  machine  name,   it   is
                             assumed to be relative to the sender
                             of the message. Normally not  needed
                             when dealing with hosts that support
                             RFC822.



     metoo                   If your login  appears  as  a  reci-
                             pient,  do  not  delete  it from the
                             list. Disabled by default.



     mustbang                Force all mail addresses  to  be  in
                             bang format.



     onehop                  When responding to  a  message  that
                             was originally sent to several reci-
                             pients,    the    other    recipient
                             addresses  are normally forced to be
                             relative to the originating author's
                             machine  for the response. This flag
                             disables  alteration  of  the  reci-
                             pients'  addresses,  improving effi-
                             ciency  in  a  network   where   all
                             machines  can  send  directly to all
                             other machines  (that  is,  one  hop
                             away). Disabled by default.



     outfolder               Locate the files used to record out-
                             going   messages  in  the  directory
                             specified  by  the  folder  variable
                             unless  the  path  name is absolute.
                             Disabled  by  default.  See   folder
                             above  and the Save, Copy, followup,
                             and Followup commands.



     page                    Used with the pipe command to insert
                             a  form feed after each message sent
                             through  the   pipe.   Disabled   by
                             default.



     pipeignore              Omit ignored header when  outputting
                             to  the  pipe command. Although dis-
                             abled  by  default,   pipeignore  is
                             frequently set in the system startup
                             file. See  Starting  Mail  in  USAGE
                             above.



     postmark                Your "real name" to be  included  in
                             the  From line of messages you send.
                             By default this is derived from  the
                             comment field in your passwd(4) file
                             entry.



     prompt=string           Set  the  command  mode  prompt   to
                             string.  Default is "? ", unless the
                             bsdcompat variable is set, then  the
                             default is "&".



     quiet                   Refrain from  printing  the  opening
                             message  and  version  when entering
                             mailx. Disabled by default.



     record=file             Record all outgoing  mail  in  file.
                             Disabled  by  default. See also out-
                             folder above.



     replyall                Reverse the effect of the reply  and
                             Reply   and  followup  and  Followup
                             commands. Although set  by  default,
                             replayall is frequently unset in the
                             system startup file. See  flipr  and
                             Starting Mail in USAGE above.



     returnaddr=string       The default sender address  is  that
                             of  the  current user. This variable
                             can  be  used  to  set  the   sender
                             address  to any arbitrary value. Set
                             with caution.



     save                    Enable saving of messages  in  dead-
                             letter   on  interrupt  or  delivery
                             error. See DEAD for a description of
                             this file. Enabled by default.



     screen=number           Sets  the  number  of  lines  in   a
                             screen-full   of   headers  for  the
                             headers command. number  must  be  a
                             positive number.

                             The default is set according to baud
                             rate  or  window  size.  With a baud
                             rate less than 1200, number defaults
                             to  5, if baud rate is exactly 1200,
                             it defaults to 10. If you are  in  a
                             window,   number   defaults  to  the
                             default window size minus 4.  Other-
                             wise, the default is 20.



     sendmail=shell-command  Alternate  command  for   delivering
                             messages.  Note:  In addition to the
                             expected list  of  recipients,  mail
                             also  passes the -i and -m, flags to
                             the command. Since these  flags  are
                             not  appropriate  to other commands,
                             you may have to use a  shell  script
                             that  strips them from the arguments
                             list  before  invoking  the  desired
                             command.  Default is /usr/bin/rmail.




     sendwait                Wait for background mailer to finish
                             before    returning.   Disabled   by
                             default.



     showname                Causes the message header display to
                             show  the  sender's  real  name  (if
                             known)  rather   than   their   mail
                             address.  Disabled  by  default, but
                             showname    is    set     in     the
                             /etc/mail/mailx.rc   system  startup
                             file for mailx.



     showto                  When displaying the  header  summary
                             and  the  message is from you, print
                             the recipient's name instead of  the
                             author's name.



     sign=string             The variable inserted into the  text
                             of a message when the ~a (autograph)
                             command is given.  No  default  (see
                             also ~i in Tilde Escapes).

                             `



     Sign=string             The variable inserted into the  text
                             of  a message when the ~A command is
                             given.  No default (see also  ~i  in
                             Tilde Escapes).



     toplines=number         The number of  lines  of  header  to
                             print  with the top command. Default
                             is 5.



     verbose                 Invoke  sendmail(1M)  with  the   -v
                             flag.



     translate               The name of a program  to  translate
                             mail addresses. The program receives
                             mail  addresses  as  arguments.  The
                             program  produces,  on  the standard
                             output, lines containing the follow-
                             ing data, in this order:

                               o  the  postmark  for  the  sender
                                  (see the postmark variable)

                               o  translated mail addresses,  one
                                  per  line, corresponding to the
                                  program's   arguments.     Each
                                  translated address will replace
                                  the  corresponding  address  in
                                  the mail message being sent.

                               o  a line containing only  "y"  or
                                  "n".   if the line contains "y"
                                  the user will be asked to  con-
                                  firm that the message should be
                                  sent.


                             The  translate   program   will   be
                             invoked  for each mail message to be
                             sent. If the program  exits  with  a
                             non-zero  exit  status,  or fails to
                             produce enough output,  the  message
                             is not sent.



  Large File Behavior
     See largefile(5) for the  description  of  the  behavior  of
     mailx  when  encountering  files  greater than or equal to 2
     Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the execution of mailx: HOME, LANG,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_TIME, LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TERM.

     DEAD            The name of the file in which to  save  par-
                     tial  letters in case of untimely interrupt.
                     Default is $HOME/dead.letter.



     EDITOR          The command to run when the edit or ~e  com-
                     mand is used. Default is ed(1).



     LISTER          The command (and options) to use when  list-
                     ing  the  contents  of the folder directory.
                     The default is ls(1).



     MAIL            The name of the initial mailbox file to read
                     (in  lieu  of  the standard system mailbox).
                     The default is /var/mail/username .



     MAILRC          The name of the startup  file.   Default  is
                     $HOME/.mailrc.



     MAILX_HEAD      The specified  string  is  included  at  the
                     beginning  of  the body of each message that
                     is sent.



     MAILX_TAIL      The specified string is included at the  end
                     of the body of each message that is sent.



     MBOX            The name of the file to save messages  which
                     have  been  read. The exit command overrides
                     this function, as does  saving  the  message
                     explicitly  in  another  file.   Default  is
                     $HOME/mbox.



     PAGER           The command to use as a filter for  paginat-
                     ing output. This can also be used to specify
                     the options to be used.  Default  is  pg(1),
                     or  if  the  bsdcompat  variable is set, the
                     default is more(1).  See Internal Variables.



     SHELL           The name of a preferred command interpreter.
                     Default is sh(1).



     VISUAL          The  name  of  a  preferred  screen  editor.
                     Default is vi(1).

EXIT STATUS
     When the -e option is specified, the following  exit  values
     are returned:

     0        Mail was found.



     >0       Mail was not found or an error occurred.



     Otherwise, the following exit values are returned:

     0        Successful  completion.  Notice  that  this  status
              implies  that  all messages were sent, but it gives
              no  assurances  that  any  of  them  were  actually
              delivered.



     >0       An error occurred



FILES
     $HOME/.mailrc                            personal    startup
                                             file



     $HOME/mbox                              secondary    storage
                                             file



     $HOME/.Maillock                         lock file to prevent
                                             multiple  writers of
                                             system mailbox



     /etc/mail/mailx.rc                      optional      system
                                             startup   file   for
                                             mailx only



     /etc/mail/Mail.rc                       BSD    compatibility
                                             system-wide  startup
                                             file             for
                                             /usr/ucb/mail    and
                                             /usr/ucb/Mail



     /tmp/R[emqsx]*                          temporary files



     /usr/share/lib/mailx/mailx.help*        help message files



     /var/mail/*                             post  office  direc-
                                             tory



ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     biff(1B),  echo(1),  ed(1),  ex(1),  fmt(1),  lp(1),  ls(1),
     mail(1),  mail(1B),  mailcompat(1),  more(1),  pg(1), sh(1),
     uucp(1C), vacation(1), vi(1), newaliases(1M),  sendmail(1M),
     aliases(4),  passwd(4),  attributes(5),  environ(5),  large-
     file(5), standards(5)

NOTES
     Where shell-command is shown as  valid,  arguments  are  not
     always allowed. Experimentation is recommended.

     Internal variables imported from the  execution  environment
     cannot be unset.

     The full internet  addressing  is  not  fully  supported  by
     mailx. The new standards need some time to settle down.

     Replies do not always  generate  correct  return  addresses.
     Try resending the errant reply with onehop set.

     mailx does not lock your record  file.  So,  if  you  use  a
     record  file  and  send two or more messages simultaneously,
     lines from the messages may be  interleaved  in  the  record
     file.

     The format for the alias command is a  space-separated  list
     of  recipients,  while the format for an alias in either the
     .forward or /etc/aliases is a comma-separated list.

     To read mail on a workstation running Solaris 1.x when  your
     mail  server is running Solaris 2.x, first execute the mail-
     compat(1) program.










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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