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     man - find and display reference manual pages

     man [-] [-adFlrt] [-M path] [-T macro-package]  [-s section]

     man [-M path] -k keyword...

     man [-M path] -f file...

     The man command  displays  information  from  the  reference
     manuals.  It  displays complete manual pages that you select
     by name, or one-line summaries selected  either  by  keyword
     (-k),  or  by  the  name  of  an associated file (-f). If no
     manual page is located, man prints an error message.

  Source Format
     Reference Manual pages are marked up with either nroff  (see
     nroff(1))  or  SGML  (Standard  Generalized Markup Language)
     tags (see sgml(5)). The man command recognizes the  type  of
     markup  and  processes  the  file  accordingly.  The various
     source files are kept in separate directories  depending  on
     the type of markup.

  Location of Manual Pages
     The online Reference Manual page directories are convention-
     ally  located  in  /usr/share/man.  The  nroff  sources  are
     located in the /usr/share/man/man*  directories.  The   SGML
     sources are located in the /usr/share/man/sman* directories.
     Each directory corresponds to a section of the manual. Since
     these  directories  are optionally installed, they might not
     reside on your host. You might have to mount  /usr/share/man
     from a host on which they do reside.

     If  there  are  preformatted,  up-to-date  versions  in  the
     corresponding  cat* or fmt* directories, man simply displays
     or prints those versions. If  the  preformatted  version  of
     interest  is  out of date or missing, man reformats it prior
     to display and stores the preformatted version if   cat*  or
     fmt* is writable.   The  windex database is not updated. See
     catman(1M). If directories for the preformatted versions are
     not   provided,    man  reformats  a  page  whenever  it  is
     requested. man uses a temporary file to store the  formatted
     text during display.

     If the standard output is not a terminal, or if the `-' flag
     is  given,  man  pipes its output through cat(1). Otherwise,
     man pipes its output through more(1) to  handle  paging  and
     underlining on the screen.

     The following options are supported:

     -a              Shows all manual pages matching  name within
                     the  MANPATH  search  path. Manual pages are
                     displayed in the order found.

     -d              Debugs. Displays  what  a  section-specifier
                     evaluates to, method used for searching, and
                     paths searched by man.

     -f file ...     man attempts to locate manual pages  related
                     to  any  of  the  given files. It strips the
                     leading path name components from each file,
                     and  then prints one-line summaries contain-
                     ing the resulting basename  or  names.  This
                     option also uses the windex database.

     -F              Forces man to search all directories  speci-
                     fied  by  MANPATH or the man.cf file, rather
                     than using the windex lookup database.  This
                     option  is  useful if the database is not up
                     to date and it has  been  made  the  default
                     behavior  of  the  man  command.  The option
                     therefore does not have to be invoked and is
                     documented here for reference only.

     -k keyword ...  Prints out one-line summaries from the  win-
                     dex  database  (table of contents) that con-
                     tain any of the given keywords.  The  windex
                     database is created using catman(1M).

     -l              Lists all manual pages found  matching  name
                     within the search path.

     -M path         Specifies  an  alternate  search  path   for
                     manual pages. path is a colon-separated list
                     of  directories  that  contain  manual  page
                     directory  subtrees. For example, if path is
                     /usr/share/man:/usr/local/man, man  searches
                     for  name in the standard location, and then
                     /usr/local/man. When used with the -k or  -f
                     options,  the  -M  option must appear first.
                     Each directory in the  path  is  assumed  to
                     contain  subdirectories  of the form man* or
                     sman* , one for each  section.  This  option
                     overrides the MANPATH environment variable.

     -r              Reformats the  manual  page,  but  does  not
                     display  it. This replaces the man - -t name

     -s section ...  Specifies sections of the manual for man  to
                     search.  The  directories  searched for name
                     are limited to those specified  by  section.
                     section  can  be  a numerical digit, perhaps
                     followed by one or more letters to match the
                     desired  section of the manual, for example,
                     "3libucb". Also, section can be a word,  for
                     example,  local,  new,  old, public. section
                     can also be a letter.  To  specify  multiple
                     sections,   separate  each  section  with  a
                     comma. This  option  overrides  the  MANPATH
                     environment  variable  and  the man.cf file.
                     See Search Path below for an explanation  of
                     how man conducts its search.

     -t              man arranges for the specified manual  pages
                     to  be  troffed  to a suitable raster output
                     device (see troff(1)).  If both the - and -t
                     flags  are  given,  man  updates the troffed
                     versions of each named name (if  necessary),
                     but does not display them.

     -T macro-packageFormats  manual  pages  using  macro-package
                     rather than the standard -man macros defined
                     in /usr/share/lib/tmac/an. See  Search  Path
                     under  USAGE  for  a complete explanation of
                     the default search path order.


     The following operand is supported:

     name            A keyword or the name of a standard utility.

     The usage of man is described below:

  Manual Page Sections
     Entries in the reference manuals  are  organized  into  sec-
     tions. A section name consists of a major section name, typ-
     ically a single digit, optionally followed by  a  subsection
     name, typically one or more letters. An unadorned major sec-
     tion name, for example, "9", does not act as an abbreviation
     for  the  subsections  of  that name, such as "9e", "9f", or
     "9s". That is, each subsection must be  searched  separately
     by  man -s.  Each section contains descriptions apropos to a
     particular reference  category,  with  subsections  refining
     these distinctions. See the intro manual pages for an expla-
     nation of the classification used in this release.

  Search Path
     Before searching for a given name, man constructs a list  of
     candidate directories and sections. man searches for name in
     the directories specified by the MANPATH  environment  vari-
     able.  If  this  variable  is  not  set,  /usr/share/man  is
     searched by default.

     Within the manual page directories, man confines its  search
     to the sections specified in the following order:

       o  sections specified on the  command  line  with  the  -s

       o  sections embedded in the MANPATH environment variable

       o  sections specified in the man.cf file for  each  direc-
          tory specified in the MANPATH environment variable

     If none of the above exist, man searches each  directory  in
     the manual page path, and displays the first matching manual
     page found.

     The man.cf file has the following format:


     Lines beginning with `#' and blank lines are considered com-
     ments,  and are ignored. Each directory specified in MANPATH
     can contain a manual page configuration file, specifying the
     default search order for that directory.

Formatting Manual Pages
     Manual pages are marked up in nroff(1)  or  sgml(5).   Nroff
     manual  pages are processed by nroff(1) or troff(1) with the
     -man macro package. Please refer to man(5)  for  information
     on macro usage. SGML-tagged manual pages are processed by an
     SGML parser and passed to the formatter.

  Preprocessing Nroff Manual Pages
     When formatting an nroff manual page, man examines the first
     line to determine whether it requires special processing. If
     the first line is a string of the form:

     '\" X

     where X is separated from the `"' by a  single  <SPACE>  and
     consists  of  any combination of characters in the following
     list, man pipes its input to troff(1)  or  nroff(1)  through
     the corresponding preprocessors.

     e        eqn(1), or neqn for nroff

     r        refer(1)

     t        tbl(1)

     v        vgrind(1)

     If eqn or neqn is invoked, it automatically reads  the  file
     /usr/pub/eqnchar  (see eqnchar(5)).  If nroff(1) is invoked,
     col(1) is automatically used.

  Referring to Other nroff Manual Pages
     If the first line of the nroff manual page is a reference to
     another manual page entry fitting the pattern:

     .so man*/sourcefile

     man processes the indicated file in  place  of  the  current
     one. The reference must be expressed as a path name relative
     to the root of the manual page directory subtree.

     When the second or any subsequent line starts with .so,  man
     ignores  it;  troff(1)  or nroff(1) processes the request in
     the usual manner.

  Processing SGML Manual Pages
     Manual pages are identified as being marked up  in  SGML  by
     the  presence of the string <!DOCTYPE. If the file also con-
     tains the string SHADOW_PAGE, the  file  refers  to  another
     manual  page  for  the content. The reference is made with a
     file entity reference to the manual page that  contains  the
     text.  This  is  similar  to  the  .so mechanism used in the
     nroff formatted man pages.

     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the execution of man: LANG, LC_ALL,

     MANPATH         A colon-separated list of directories;  each
                     directory   can  be  followed  by  a  comma-
                     separated list  of  sections.  If  set,  its
                     value   overrides   /usr/share/man   as  the
                     default  directory  search  path,  and   the
                     man.cf  file  as  the default section search
                     path. The -M and  -s flags, in  turn,  over-
                     ride these values.)

     PAGER           A program to use for interactively  deliver-
                     ing  man's output to the screen. If not set,
                     `more -s' is used. See more(1).

     TCAT            The name of the program to  use  to  display
                     troffed manual pages.

     TROFF           The name of the formatter to use when the -t
                     flag is given. If not set, troff(1) is used.

     Example 1: Creating a PostScript Version of a man page

     The following  example  creates  the  pipe(2)  man  page  in
     postscript for csh, tcsh, ksh and sh users:

          % env TCAT=/usr/lib/lp/postscript/dpost man -t -s 2 pipe > pipe.ps

     This is an alternative to  using man -t, which sends the man
     page to the default printer, if the user  wants a postscript
     file version of the man page.

     Example 2: Creating a Text Version of a man page

     The following example creates the pipe(2) man page in  ascii

     man pipe.2 | col -x -b  >  pipe.text

     This is an alternative to  using man -t, which sends the man
     page  to the default printer, if the user  wants a text file
     version of the man page.

     The following exit values are returned:

     0               Successful completion.

     >0              An error occurred.


         Root of the standard manual page directory subtree


         Unformatted nroff manual entries


         Unformatted  SGML manual entries


         nroffed manual entries


         troffed manual entries


         Table of contents and keyword database


         Standard -man macro package


         SGML document type definition files


         SGML style sheet and entity definitions directories


         Standard definitions for eqn and neqn


         Default search order by section

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWdoc                     |
    | CSI                         | Enabled, see NOTES.         |
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |

     apropos(1),  cat(1),  col(1),  dpost(1),  eqn(1),   more(1),
     nroff(1),  refer(1), tbl(1), troff(1), vgrind(1), whatis(1),
     catman(1M), attributes(5), environ(5),  eqnchar(5),  man(5),
     sgml(5), standards(5)

     The -f and -k options use  the  windex  database,  which  is
     created by catman(1M).

     The man command  is  CSI-capable.  However,  some  utilities
     invoked by the man command, namely, troff, eqn, neqn, refer,
     tbl, and vgrind, are not verified to be CSI-capable. Because
     of  this,  the man command with the -t option can not handle
     non-EUC data. Also, using the man  command  to  display  man
     pages  that  require  special  processing through eqn, neqn,
     refer, tbl, or vgrind can not be CSI-capable.

     The manual is supposed to be reproducible either on a photo-
     typesetter  or  on an ASCII terminal. However, on a terminal
     some information (indicated by font changes,  for  instance)
     is lost.

     Some dumb terminals cannot process the vertical motions pro-
     duced  by  the e (see eqn(1)) preprocessing flag. To prevent
     garbled output on these terminals, when you use e, also  use
     t,  to  invoke  col(1)  implicitly.  This workaround has the
     disadvantage of  eliminating  superscripts  and  subscripts,
     even  on  those terminals that can display them. <Control-q>
     clears a terminal that gets confused by eqn(1) output.

Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.