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od


NAME
     od - octal dump

SYNOPSIS
     /usr/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [file] [offset_string]

     /usr/bin/od  [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx]  [-A address_base]  [-j skip]
     [-N count] [-t type_string...] [file...]

     /usr/xpg4/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [file] [offset_string]

     /usr/xpg4/bin/od  [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx]   [-A address_base]   [-
     j skip] [-N count] [-t type_string...] [-] [file...]

DESCRIPTION
     The od command copies sequentially each input file to  stan-
     dard  output  and transforms the input data according to the
     output types specified by the -t or -bcCDdFfOoSsvXx options.
     If  no output type is specified, the default output is as if
     -t o2 had been specified.  Multiple types can  be  specified
     by using multiple -bcCDdFfOoSstvXx options. Output lines are
     written for each type specified in the order  in  which  the
     types  are specified.  If no file is specified, the standard
     input is used.
      The [offset_string] operand is mutually exclusive from  the
     -A,  -j,  -N,  and  -t  options.  For  the  purposes of this
     description, the following terms are used:

     word                    Refers to a 16-bit unit, independent
                             of the word size of the machine.



     long word               Refers to a 32-bit unit.



     double long word        Refers to a 64-bit unit.



OPTIONS
     The following options are supported:

     -A address_base Specifies  the  input   offset   base.   The
                     address_base option-argument must be a char-
                     acter.  The characters d, o  and  x  specify
                     that  the  offset  base  will  be written in
                     decimal, octal or hexadecimal, respectively.
                     The  character  n  specifies that the offset
                     will not be written. Unless -A n  is  speci-
                     fied,  the  output  line will be preceded by
                     the input offset,  cumulative  across  input
                     files,  of  the  next byte to be written. In
                     addition, the offset of the  byte  following
                     the  last  byte  written  will  be displayed
                     after all the input data has been processed.
                     Without  the  -A address_base option and the
                     [offset_string] operand,  the  input  offset
                     base is displayed in octal.



     -b              Interprets  bytes   in   octal.    This   is
                     equivalent to -t o1.



  /usr/bin/od
     -c              Displays  single-byte  characters.   Certain
                     non-graphic  characters appear as C-language
                     escapes:

                     null         \0
                     backspace    \b
                     form-feed    \f
                     new-line     \n
                     return       \r
                     tab          \t


                     Others appear as 3-digit octal numbers.  For
                     example:



                     echo "hello world" | od -c
                     0000000   h   e   l   l   o       w   o   r   l   d  \n
                     0000014



  /usr/xpg4/bin/od
     -c              Interprets bytes as single-byte or multibyte
                     characters  according to the current setting
                     of the LC_CTYPE locale  category.  Printable
                     multibyte characters are written in the area
                     corresponding to the first byte of the char-
                     acter.  The  two-character  sequence  **  is
                     written in the area  corresponding  to  each
                     remaining byte in the character, as an indi-
                     cation  that  the  character  is  continued.
                     Non-graphic  characters  appear  the same as
                     they would using the -C option.

     -C              Interprets bytes as single-byte or multibyte
                     characters  according to the current setting
                     of the LC_CTYPE locale  category.  Printable
                     multibyte characters are written in the area
                     corresponding to the first byte of the char-
                     acter.   The  two-character  sequence  ** is
                     written in the area  corresponding  to  each
                     remaining byte in the character, as an indi-
                     cation that the character is continued. Cer-
                     tain  non-graphic  characters  appear  as  C
                     escapes:

                     null         \0
                     backspace    \b
                     form-feed    \f
                     new-line     \n
                     return       \r
                     tab          \t

                     Other non-printable characters appear as one
                     three-digit  octal  number  for each byte in
                     the character.



     -d              Interprets words in unsigned decimal.   This
                     is equivalent to -t u2.



     -D              Interprets long words in  unsigned  decimal.
                     This is equivalent to -t u4.



     -f              Interprets long  words  in  floating  point.
                     This is equivalent to -t f4.



     -F              Interprets double  long  words  in  extended
                     precision. This is equivalent to -t f8.



     -j skip         Jumps over skip bytes from the beginning  of
                     the  input. The od command will read or seek
                     past  the  first  skip  bytes  in  the  con-
                     catenated  input  files.   If  the  combined
                     input is not at least skip bytes  long,  the
                     od  command  will write a diagnostic message
                     to standard error and exit with  a  non-zero
                     exit status.

                     By  default,  the  skip  option-argument  is
                     interpreted  as  a  decimal  number.  With a
                     leading 0x or 0X, the offset is  interpreted
                     as  a  hexadecimal number; otherwise, with a
                     leading 0, the offset will be interpreted as
                     an octal number.  Appending the character b,
                     k, or m to offset will cause it to be inter-
                     preted as a multiple of 512, 1024 or 1048576
                     bytes, respectively. If the skip  number  is
                     hexadecimal, any appended b is considered to
                     be the final hexadecimal digit. The  address
                     is  displayed  starting  at 0000000, and its
                     base is not implied by the base of the  skip
                     option-argument.



     -N count        Formats no more than count bytes  of  input.
                     By   default,  count  is  interpreted  as  a
                     decimal number.  With a leading  0x  or  0X,
                     count   is   interpreted  as  a  hexadecimal
                     number; otherwise, with a leading 0,  it  is
                     interpreted  as  an  octal  number. If count
                     bytes of input (after successfully skipping,
                     if  -jskip  is specified) are not available,
                     it will not be considered an error.  The  od
                     command will format the input that is avail-
                     able.  The base of the address displayed  is
                     not   implied  by  the  base  of  the  count
                     option-argument.



     -o              Interprets   words   in   octal.   This   is
                     equivalent to -t o2.



     -O              Interprets long  words  in  unsigned  octal.
                     This is equivalent to -t o4.



     -s              Interprets words in signed decimal. This  is
                     equivalent to -t d2.



     -S              Interprets long  words  in  signed  decimal.
                     This is equivalent to -t d4.

     -t type_string  Specifies one  or  more  output  types.  The
                     type_string option-argument must be a string
                     specifying the types to be used when writing
                     the  input  data. The string must consist of
                     the type specification characters:

                     a               Named character.  Interprets
                                     bytes  as  named characters.
                                     Only the  least  significant
                                     seven bits of each byte will
                                     be  used   for   this   type
                                     specification.   Bytes  with
                                     the  values  listed  in  the
                                     following   table   will  be
                                     written      using       the
                                     corresponding    names   for
                                     those characters.

                                     The  following   are   named
                                     characters in od:

                                     Value   Name

                                      00    nul
                                      01    soh
                                      02    stx
                                      03    etx
                                      04    eot
                                      05    enq
                                      06    ack
                                      07    bel
                                      10    bs
                                      11    ht
                                      12    lf
                                      13    vt
                                      14    ff
                                      15    cr
                                      16    so
                                      17    si
                                      20    dle
                                      21    dc1
                                      22    dc2
                                      23    dc3
                                      24    dc4
                                      25    nak
                                      26    syn
                                      27    etb
                                      30    can
                                      31    em
                                      32    sub
                                      33    esc
                                      34    fs
                                      35    gs
                                      36    rs
                                      37    us
                                      40    sp
                                     177    del





                     c               Character. Interprets  bytes
                                     as  single-byte or multibyte
                                     characters specified by  the
                                     current   setting   of   the
                                     LC_CTYPE  locale   category.
                                     Printable  multibyte charac-
                                     ters are written in the area
                                     corresponding  to  the first
                                     byte of the  character.  The
                                     two-character sequence ** is
                                     written    in    the    area
                                     corresponding     to    each
                                     remaining byte in the  char-
                                     acter, as an indication that
                                     the character is  continued.
                                     Certain  non-graphic charac-
                                     ters appear  as  C  escapes:
                                     \0,  \a, \b, \f, \n, \r, \t,
                                     \v.   Other    non-printable
                                     characters   appear  as  one
                                     three-digit octal number for
                                     each byte in the character.



                     The type specification characters d,  f,  o,
                     u,  and  x  can  be  followed by an optional
                     unsigned decimal integer that specifies  the
                     number  of  bytes  to be transformed by each
                     instance of the output type.

                     f               Floating point. Can be  fol-
                                     lowed  by  an optional F, D,
                                     or  L  indicating  that  the
                                     conversion should be applied
                                     to an item  of  type  float,
                                     double,   or   long  double,
                                     respectively.




                     d, o, u, and x  Signed    decimal,    octal,
                                     unsigned  decimal, and hexa-
                                     decimal, respectively.
                                      Can  be  followed   by   an
                                     optional C, S, I, or L indi-
                                     cating that  the  conversion
                                     should be applied to an item
                                     of type char, short, int, or
                                     long, respectively.



                     Multiple types can  be  concatenated  within
                     the same type_string and multiple -t options
                     can be specified. Output lines  are  written
                     for  each  type  specified  in  the order in
                     which the type specification characters  are
                     specified.


     -v              Shows all input data (verbose). Without  the
                     -v  option,  all groups of output lines that
                     would  be  identical  to   the   immediately
                     preceding   output  line  (except  for  byte
                     offsets), will be replaced with a line  con-
                     taining only an asterisk (*).



     -x              Interprets words in hex. This is  equivalent
                     to -t x2.



     -X              Interprets  long  words  in  hex.  This   is
                     equivalent to -t x4.



OPERANDS
     The following operands are supported  for  both  /usr/bin/od
     and /usr/xpg4/bin/od:

     -               Uses the standard input in addition  to  any
                     files  specified.   When this operand is not
                     given, the standard input is used only if no
                     file operands are specified.



  /usr/bin/od

     The following operands are supported for /usr/bin/od only:

     file                    A path name of a file to be read. If
                             no  file operands are specified, the
                             standard  input  will  be  used.  If
                             there are no more than two operands,
                             none  of  the  -A,  -j,  -N,  or  -t
                             options is specified, and any of the
                             following are true:

                                 1.  the first character  of  the
                                     last  operand is a plus sign
                                     (+)


                                 2.  the first character  of  the
                                     second operand is numeric


                                 3.  the first character  of  the
                                     second  operand is x and the
                                     second  character   of   the
                                     second  operand  is a lower-
                                     case  hexadecimal  character
                                     or digit


                                 4.  the second operand is  named
                                     "x"


                                 5.  the second operand is  named
                                     "."



                             then the  corresponding  operand  is
                             assumed  to  be  an  offset  operand
                             rather than a file operand.

                             Without the  -N  count  option,  the
                             display  continues  until an end-of-
                             file is reached.



     [+][0] offset [.][b|B]  The offset_string operand  specifies
     [+][0][offset] [.]      the  byte  offset  in the file where
     [+][0x|x][offset]       dumping is to commence.  The  offset
     [+][0x|x] offset[B]     is  interpreted  in  octal  bytes by
                             default. If offset begins with  "0",
                             it   is  interpreted  in  octal.  If
                             offset begins with "x" or  "0x",  it
                             is  interpreted  in  hexadecimal and
                             any appended "b" is considered to be
                             the  final hexadecimal digit. If "."
                             is appended, the  offset  is  inter-
                             preted  in decimal. If "b" or "B" is
                             appended, the offset is  interpreted
                             in  units  of 512 bytes. If the file
                             argument  is  omitted,  the   offset
                             argument  must be preceded by a plus
                             sign (+).  The address is  displayed
                             starting  at  the given offset.  The
                             radix of the  address  will  be  the
                             same  as the radix of the offset, if
                             specified,  otherwise  it  will   be
                             octal.  Decimal overrides octal, and
                             it is an error to specify both hexa-
                             decimal  and  decimal conversions in
                             the same offset operand.






  /usr/xpg4/bin/od
     The following operands are  supported  for  /usr/xpg4/bin/od
     only:

     file                    Same as /usr/bin/od, except only one
                             of  the first two conditions must be
                             true.



     [+] [0] offset [.][b|B] Description of offset_string is  the
     + [offset] [.]          same as for /usr/bin/od.
     [+][0x][offset]
     [+][0x] offset[B]
     +x [offset]
     +xoffset [B]




ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the  execution of od: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_NUMERIC, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS

     The following exit values are returned:

     0        Successful completion.



     >0       An error occurred.



ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

  /usr/bin/od
     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWtoo                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | enabled                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


  /usr/xpg4/bin/od
     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWxcu4                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | enabled                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     sed(1), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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