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ps


NAME
     ps - report process status

SYNOPSIS
     ps  [-aAcdefjlLPyZ] [-g grplist] [-n namelist]  [-o format]...
     [-p proclist] [-s sidlist] [-t term] [-u uidlist] [-U uidlist]
     [-G gidlist] [-z zonelist]


DESCRIPTION
     The ps command prints information  about  active  processes.
     Without  options, ps prints information about processes that
     have the same effective user ID  and  the  same  controlling
     terminal  as  the invoker. The output contains only the pro-
     cess ID, terminal identifier, cumulative execution time, and
     the   command  name.  Otherwise,  the  information  that  is
     displayed is controlled by the options.


     Some options accept lists as arguments. Items in a list  can
     be either separated by commas or else enclosed in quotes and
     separated by commas  or  spaces.  Values  for  proclist  and
     grplist must be numeric.

OPTIONS
     The following options are supported:

     -a                  Lists information  about  all  processes
                         most  frequently  requested:  all  those
                         except session leaders and processes not
                         associated with a terminal.


     -A                  Lists  information  for  all  processes.
                         Identical to -e, below.


     -c                  Prints  information  in  a  format  that
                         reflects    scheduler    properties   as
                         described in priocntl(1). The -c  option
                         affects  the  output  of  the  -f and -l
                         options, as described below.


     -d                  Lists information  about  all  processes
                         except session leaders.


     -e                  Lists information  about  every  process
                         now running.

                         When the -eoption is specified,  options
                         -z,  -t,  -u, -U, -g, -G, -p, -g, -s and
                         -a options have no effect.


     -f                  Generates a full listing. (See below for
                         significance  of columns in a full list-
                         ing.)


     -g grplist          Lists  only  process  data  whose  group
                         leader's   ID   number(s)   appears   in
                         grplist. (A group leader  is  a  process
                         whose  process ID number is identical to
                         its process group ID number.)


     -G gidlist          Lists information  for  processes  whose
                         real  group  ID  numbers  are  given  in
                         gidlist. The gidlist must  be  a  single
                         argument  in  the  form  of  a blank- or
                         comma-separated list.


     -j                  Prints session ID and process group ID.


     -l                  Generates a long listing. (See below.)


     -L                  Prints  information  about  each   light
                         weight  process  (lwp)  in each selected
                         process. (See below.)


     -n namelist         Specifies the  name  of  an  alternative
                         system  namelist  file  in  place of the
                         default. This  option  is  accepted  for
                         compatibility, but is ignored.


     -o format           Prints information according to the for-
                         mat  specification given in format. This
                         is fully described in  DISPLAY  FORMATS.
                         Multiple  -o  options  can be specified;
                         the format specification will be  inter-
                         preted  as the space-character-separated
                         concatenation of all the format  option-
                         arguments.


     -p proclist         Lists only process data whose process ID
                         numbers are given in proclist.

     -P                  Prints the number of  the  processor  to
                         which  the  process  or lwp is bound, if
                         any, under an additional column  header,
                         PSR.


     -s sidlist          Lists information on all session leaders
                         whose IDs appear in sidlist.


     -t term             Lists only process data associated  with
                         term. Terminal identifiers are specified
                         as a device file name, and  an  identif-
                         ier. For example, term/a, or pts/0.


     -u uidlist          Lists only process data whose  effective
                         user ID number or login name is given in
                         uidlist. In the listing,  the  numerical
                         user  ID will be printed unless you give
                         the -f option, which  prints  the  login
                         name.


     -U uidlist          Lists information  for  processes  whose
                         real  user ID numbers or login names are
                         given in uidlist. The uidlist must be  a
                         single  argument in the form of a blank-
                         or comma-separated list.


     -y                  Under a long  listing  (-l),  omits  the
                         obsolete F and ADDR columns and includes
                         an RSS column to report the resident set
                         size   of  the  process.  Under  the  -y
                         option, both RSS and SZ (see below) will
                         be   reported   in  units  of  kilobytes
                         instead of pages.


     -z zonelist         Lists only processes  in  the  specified
                         zones.  Zones can be specified either by
                         name or ID. This option is  only  useful
                         when executed in the global zone.


     -Z                  Prints the name of the zone  with  which
                         the process is associated under an addi-
                         tional column  header,  ZONE.  The  ZONE
                         column width is limited to 8 characters.
                         Use ps -eZ for a quick way to see infor-
                         mation  about  every process now running
                         along with the associated zone name. Use

                           ps -eo zone,uid,pid,ppid,time,comm,...


                         to see zone names wider than  8  charac-
                         ters.



     Many of the options shown are used to  select  processes  to
     list. If any are specified, the default list will be ignored
     and  ps  will  select  the  processes  represented  by   the
     inclusive OR of all the selection-criteria options.

DISPLAY FORMATS
     Under the -f option, ps tries to determine the command  name
     and  arguments given when the process was created by examin-
     ing the user  block.  Failing  this,  the  command  name  is
     printed, as it would have appeared without the -f option, in
     square brackets.


     The column headings and the meaning of the columns in  a  ps
     listing  are  given  below; the letters f and l indicate the
     option  (full  or  long,  respectively)  that   causes   the
     corresponding  heading to appear; all means that the heading
     always appears. Note: These two options determine only  what
     information is provided for a process; they do not determine
     which processes will be listed.

     F    (l)            Flags (hexadecimal and additive) associ-
                         ated  with  the process. These flags are
                         available for  historical  purposes;  no
                         meaning  should be currently ascribed to
                         them.


     S (l)               The state of the process:

                         O            Process  is  running  on  a
                                      processor.


                         S            Sleeping: process is  wait-
                                      ing  for  an  event to com-
                                      plete.


                         R            Runnable: process is on run
                                      queue.

                         T            Process is stopped,  either
                                      by  a job control signal or
                                      because it is being traced.


                         W            Waiting: process is waiting
                                      for  CPU  usage  to drop to
                                      the CPU-caps enforced  lim-
                                      its.


                         Z            Zombie state: process  ter-
                                      minated   and   parent  not
                                      waiting.



     UID (f,l)           The effective user ID number of the pro-
                         cess  (the  login  name is printed under
                         the -f option).


     PID  (all)          The process  ID  of  the  process  (this
                         datum  is  necessary  in order to kill a
                         process).


     PPID (f,l)          The process ID of the parent process.


     C    (f,l)          Processor  utilization  for   scheduling
                         (obsolete).  Not  printed  when  the  -c
                         option is used.


     CLS  (f,l)          Scheduling class. Printed only when  the
                         -c option is used.


     PRI  (l)            The priority of the process. Without the
                         -c  option,  higher  numbers  mean lower
                         priority. With  the  -c  option,  higher
                         numbers mean higher priority.


     NI   (l)            Nice value, used  in  priority  computa-
                         tion.  Not printed when the -c option is
                         used.  Only  processes  in  the  certain
                         scheduling classes have a nice value.



     ADDR (l)            The memory address of the process.


     SZ   (l)            The total size of the process in virtual
                         memory,  including  all mapped files and
                         devices, in pages. See pagesize(1).


     WCHAN     (l)       The address of an event  for  which  the
                         process  is sleeping (if blank, the pro-
                         cess is running).


     STIME     (f)       The starting time of the process,  given
                         in  hours, minutes, and seconds. (A pro-
                         cess begun more than  twenty-four  hours
                         before  the  ps  inquiry  is executed is
                         given in months and days.)


     TTY  (all)          The controlling terminal for the process
                         (the  message,  ?, is printed when there
                         is no controlling terminal).


     TIME (all)          The cumulative execution  time  for  the
                         process.


     LTIME     (all)     The execution time  for  the  lwp  being
                         reported.


     CMD  (all)          The command name (the full command  name
                         and  its  arguments, up to a limit of 80
                         characters, are  printed  under  the  -f
                         option).



     The following two additional columns are printed when the -j
     option is specified:

     PGID         The process ID of the process group leader.


     SID          The process ID of the session leader.



     The following two additional columns are printed when the -L
     option is specified:
     LWP          The lwp ID of the lwp being reported.


     NLWP         The number of lwps in the  process  (if  -f  is
                  also specified).



     Under the -L option, one line is printed for each lwp in the
     process  and  the time-reporting fields STIME and LTIME show
     the values for the  lwp,  not  the  process.  A  traditional
     single-threaded process contains only one lwp.


     A process that has exited and has a parent, but has not  yet
     been waited for by the parent, is marked <defunct>.

  -o format
     The -o option allows the output format to be specified under
     user control.


     The format specification must be a list of  names  presented
     as  a single argument, blank- or comma-separated. Each vari-
     able has a default header. The default header can  be  over-
     ridden  by  appending an equals sign and the new text of the
     header. The rest of the characters in the argument  will  be
     used  as the header text. The fields specified will be writ-
     ten in the order specified on the command line,  and  should
     be  arranged in columns in the output. The field widths will
     be selected by the system to be at  least  as  wide  as  the
     header  text  (default  or  overridden value). If the header
     text is null, such as -o user=, the field width will  be  at
     least as wide as the default header text. If all header text
     fields are null, no header line will be written.


     The following names are recognized in the POSIX locale:

     user                The effective user ID  of  the  process.
                         This  will be the textual user ID, if it
                         can be obtained and the field width per-
                         mits, or a decimal representation other-
                         wise.


     ruser               The real user ID of  the  process.  This
                         will  be  the textual user ID, if it can
                         be obtained and the field width permits,
                         or a decimal representation otherwise.


     group               The effective group ID of  the  process.
                         This will be the textual group ID, if it
                         can be obtained and the field width per-
                         mits, or a decimal representation other-
                         wise.


     rgroup              The real group ID of the  process.  This
                         will  be the textual group ID, if it can
                         be obtained and the field width permits,
                         or a decimal representation otherwise.


     pid                 The decimal value of the process ID.


     ppid                The decimal value of the parent  process
                         ID.


     pgid                The decimal value of the  process  group
                         ID.


     pcpu                The ratio of CPU time used  recently  to
                         CPU  time  available in the same period,
                         expressed as a percentage.  The  meaning
                         of   ``recently''  in  this  context  is
                         unspecified. The CPU time  available  is
                         determined in an unspecified manner.


     vsz                 The total size of the process in virtual
                         memory, in kilobytes.


     nice                The decimal value of the system schedul-
                         ing   priority   of   the  process.  See
                         nice(1).


     etime               In the POSIX locale,  the  elapsed  time
                         since  the  process  was started, in the
                         form:

                         [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss

                         where

                         dd           is the number of days


                         hh           is the number of hours


                         mm           is the  number  of  minutes



                         ss           is the number of seconds

                         The dd field will be a decimal  integer.
                         The  hh,  mm  and ss fields will be two-
                         digit decimal  integers  padded  on  the
                         left with zeros.


     time                In the POSIX locale, the cumulative  CPU
                         time of the process in the form:

                         [dd-]hh:mm:ss

                         The dd, hh, mm, and  ss fields  will  be
                         as described in the etime specifier.


     tty                 The name of the controlling terminal  of
                         the  process (if any) in the same format
                         used by the who(1) command.


     comm                The name of the command  being  executed
                         (argv[0] value) as a string.


     args                The command with all its arguments as  a
                         string.  The implementation may truncate
                         this value to the  field  width;  it  is
                         implementation-dependent   whether   any
                         further   truncation   occurs.   It   is
                         unspecified     whether    the    string
                         represented is a version of the argument
                         list  as  it  was  passed to the command
                         when it started, or is a version of  the
                         arguments as they may have been modified
                         by the application. Applications  cannot
                         depend  on  being  able  to modify their
                         argument list and having that  modifica-
                         tion  be  reflected in the output of ps.
                         The Solaris  implementation  limits  the
                         string  to  80  bytes; the string is the
                         version of the argument list as  it  was
                         passed to the command when it started.

     The following names are recognized in the Solaris  implemen-
     tation:

     f                   Flags (hexadecimal and additive) associ-
                         ated with the process.


     s                   The state of the process.


     c                   Processor  utilization  for   scheduling
                         (obsolete).


     uid                 The effective user ID number of the pro-
                         cess as a decimal integer.


     ruid                The real user ID number of  the  process
                         as a decimal integer.


     gid                 The effective group  ID  number  of  the
                         process as a decimal integer.


     rgid                The real group ID number of the  process
                         as a decimal integer.


     projid              The project ID number of the process  as
                         a decimal integer.


     project             The project ID of the process as a  tex-
                         tual   value   if   that  value  can  be
                         obtained;  otherwise,   as   a   decimal
                         integer.


     zoneid              The zone ID number of the process  as  a
                         decimal integer.


     zone                The zone ID of the process as a  textual
                         value  if  that  value  can be obtained;
                         otherwise, as a decimal integer.


     sid                 The process ID of the session leader.


     taskid              The task ID of the process.


     class               The scheduling class of the process.


     pri                 The  priority  of  the  process.  Higher
                         numbers mean higher priority.


     opri                The obsolete priority  of  the  process.
                         Lower numbers mean higher priority.


     lwp                 The  decimal  value  of  the   lwp   ID.
                         Requesting this formatting option causes
                         one line to be printed for each  lwp  in
                         the process.


     nlwp                The number of lwps in the process.


     psr                 The number of the processor to which the
                         process or lwp is bound.


     pset                The ID of the  processor  set  to  which
                         the  process  or lwp is bound.


     addr                The memory address of the process.


     osz                 The total size of the process in virtual
                         memory, in pages.


     wchan               The address of an event  for  which  the
                         process  is  sleeping (if -, the process
                         is running).


     stime               The starting time or date  of  the  pro-
                         cess, printed with no blanks.


     rss                 The resident set size of the process, in
                         kilobytes.  The rss value reported by ps
                         is an estimate provided by proc(4)  that
                         may  underestimate  the  actual resident
                         set size. Users who  wish  to  get  more
                         accurate  usage information for capacity
                         planning should use pmap(1) -x instead.


     pmem                The ratio of the process's resident  set
                         size  to  the  physical  memory  on  the
                         machine, expressed as a percentage.


     fname               The first 8 bytes of the  base  name  of
                         the process's executable file.


     ctid                The contract ID of the process  contract
                         the  process is a member of as a decimal
                         integer.



     Only comm and args are allowed to contain blank  characters;
     all  others, including the Solaris implementation variables,
     are not.


     The following table specifies the default header to be  used
     in the POSIX locale corresponding to each format specifier.









     __________________________________________________________________
    |     Format          Default          Format          Default    |
    |   Specifier          Header         Specifier         Header    |
    |_________________________________________________________________|
    |      args           COMMAND           ppid             PPID     |
    |      comm           COMMAND          rgroup           RGROUP    |
    |     etime           ELAPSED           ruser           RUSER     |
    |     group            GROUP            time             TIME     |
    |      nice              NI              tty              TT      |
    |      pcpu             %CPU            user             USER     |
    |      pgid             PGID             vsz             VSZ      |
    |      pid              PID                                       |
    |_________________________________________________________________|



     The following table lists the Solaris implementation  format
     specifiers and the default header used with each.









     __________________________________________________________________
    |     Format          Default          Format          Default    |
    |   Specifier          Header         Specifier         Header    |
    |_________________________________________________________________|
    |      addr             ADDR           projid           PROJID    |
    |       c                C             project         PROJECT    |
    |     class             CLS              psr             PSR      |
    |       f                F              rgid             RGID     |
    |     fname           COMMAND            rss             RSS      |
    |      gid              GID             ruid             RUID     |
    |      lwp              LWP               s               S       |
    |      nlwp             NLWP             sid             SID      |
    |      opri             PRI             stime           STIME     |
    |      osz               SZ            taskid           TASKID    |
    |      pmem             %MEM             uid             UID      |
    |      pri              PRI             wchan           WCHAN     |
    |      ctid             CTID            zone             ZONE     |
    |                                      zoneid           ZONEID    |
    |_________________________________________________________________|


EXAMPLES
     Example 1 Using ps Command


     The command:


       example% ps -o user,pid,ppid=MOM -o args




     writes the following in the POSIX locale:


        USER  PID   MOM   COMMAND
       helene  34    12   ps -o uid,pid,ppid=MOM -o args




     The contents of the COMMAND field need not be the  same  due
     to possible truncation.


ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect  the  execution of ps: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.


     COLUMNS                     Override   the   system-selected
                                 horizontal  screen size, used to
                                 determine  the  number  of  text
                                 columns to display.


EXIT STATUS
     The following exit values are returned:

     0                           Successful completion.


     >0                          An error occurred.


FILES
     /dev/pts/*


     /dev/term/*                 terminal     (``tty'')     names
                                 searcher files


     /etc/passwd                 UID information supplier


     /proc/*                     process control files


ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:



     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | Enabled (see USAGE)         |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     kill(1),   nice(1),    pagesize(1),    pgrep(1),    pmap(1),
     priocntl(1),  who(1), getty(1M), proc(4), ttysrch(4), attri-
     butes(5), environ(5), standards(5), zones(5)


NOTES
     Things can change while ps is running. The snapshot it gives
     is  true only for a split-second, and it may not be accurate
     by the time you  see  it.  Some  data  printed  for  defunct
     processes is irrelevant.


     If no options to select processes  are  specified,  ps  will
     report  all processes associated with the controlling termi-
     nal. If there is no controlling terminal, there will  be  no
     report other than the header.


     ps -ef or ps -o stime may not report the actual start  of  a
     tty  login session, but rather an earlier time, when a getty
     was last respawned on the tty line.


     ps is CSI-enabled except for login names (usernames).










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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