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rdist


NAME
     rdist - remote file distribution program

SYNOPSIS
     rdist [-b] [-D] [-h] [-i] [-n] [-q] [-R] [-a] [-K] [-x]
          [-PN | -PO] [-k realm] [-v] [-w] [-y]
          [-d macro = value] [-f distfile] [-m host]...


     rdist [-b] [-D] [-h] [-i] [-n] [-q] [-R] [-a] [-K] [-x]
          [-PN | -PO] [-k realm] [-v] [-w] [-y] -c pathname...
          [login @] hostname [: destpath]


DESCRIPTION
     The rdist utility maintains  copies  of  files  on  multiple
     hosts. It preserves the owner, group, mode, and modification
     time of the master copies, and can update programs that  are
     executing.  (rdist  does  not  propagate  ownership  or mode
     changes when the file contents have not changed.)  Normally,
     a  copy on a remote host is updated if its size or modifica-
     tion time differs from the original on the local host.  With
     the  -y  option  (younger mode), only the modification times
     are checked, not the size. See OPTIONS below.


     There are two forms of the rdist command. In the first  form
     shown  in  the SYNOPSIS section above, rdist reads the indi-
     cated distfile for instructions  on  updating  files  and/or
     directories. If distfile is `-', the standard input is used.
     If no -f option is present, rdist first looks in its working
     directory  for distfile, and then for Distfile, for instruc-
     tions.


     The second form shown in SYNOPSIS uses  the  -c  option  and
     specifies paths as command line options.


     The user can opt for a secure session of  rdist  which  uses
     Kerberos V5 for authentication. Encryption of the data being
     transferred is also possible. The rdist session can be  ker-
     berized using any of the following Kerberos specific options
     : -a, -PN or -PO, -x, and -k realm. Some  of  these  options
     (-a,  -x, -PN or -PO, and -f or -F) can also be specified in
     the [appdefaults] section  of  krb5.conf(4).  The  usage  of
     these  options and the expected behavior is discussed in the
     OPTIONS section below. If Kerberos authentication  is  used,
     authorization  to  the  account  is  controlled  by rules in
     krb5_auth_rules(5). If this authorization fails, fallback to
     normal  rdist  using rhosts occurs only if the -PO option is
     used explicitly on the  command  line  or  is  specified  in
     krb5.conf(4).  Also  notice  that the -PN or -PO, -x, and -k
     realm options are just supersets of the -a option. In  order
     to use the non-secure version of rdist across machines, each
     host machine must have a /etc/host.equiv file, or  the  user
     must  have  an  entry in the .rhosts file in the home direc-
     tory. See hosts.equiv(4) for more information.

OPTIONS
     The following options are supported:

     -a

         This option explicitly enables  Kerberos  authentication
         and  trusts the .k5login file for access-control. If the
         authorization check by in.rshd(1M)  on  the  server-side
         succeeds  and  if  the .k5login file permits access, the
         user is allowed to carry out the rdist transfer.


     -b

         Binary comparison.  Performs  a  binary  comparison  and
         updates files if they differ, rather than merely compar-
         ing dates and sizes.


     -c pathname ...[login@]hostname[:destpath]

         Copies each pathname to the named host; if  destpath  is
         specified,  it does not update any pathname on the named
         host. (Relative filenames are taken as relative to  your
         home  directory.)  If  the `login@' prefix is given, the
         update is performed with the user ID of  login.  If  the
         `:destpath'  is  given,  the remote file is installed as
         that pathname.


     -d macro=value

         Defines macro to have value.  This  option  is  used  to
         define  or  override  macro definitions in the distfile.
         value can be the empty string, one name, or  a  list  of
         names  surrounded  by parentheses and separated by white
         space.


     -D

         Enables debugging.



     -f distfile

         Uses the description file distfile. A `-' as  the  dist-
         file argument denotes the standard input.


     -h

         Follows symbolic links. Copies the file  that  the  link
         points to rather than the link itself.


     -i

         Ignores unresolved links. rdist normally tries to  main-
         tain  the  link structure of files being transferred and
         warn the user if all the links cannot be found.


     -k realm

         Causes rdist to obtain tickets for the  remote  host  in
         realm  instead  of the remote host's realm as determined
         by krb5.conf(4).


     -K

         This option explicitly disables Kerberos authentication.
         It  can  be  used  to override the autologin variable in
         krb5.conf(4).


     -m host

         Limits which machines are to  be  updated.  Multiple  -m
         arguments  can  be given to limit updates to a subset of
         the hosts listed in the distfile.


     -n

         Prints the commands without executing them. This  option
         is useful for debugging a distfile.


     -PO
     -PN

         Explicitly requests new (-PN) or old  (-PO)  version  of
         the  Kerberos  "rcmd"  protocol. The new protocol avoids
         many security problems prevalant in the old one  and  is
         regarded much more secure, but is not interoperable with
         older (MIT/SEAM) servers. The new protocol  is  used  by
         default, unless explicitly specified using these options
         or through krb5.conf(4). If Kerberos authorization fails
         when using the old "rcmd" protocol, there is fallback to
         regular, non-kerberized rdist. This is not the case when
         the new, more secure "rcmd" protocol is used.


     -q

         Quiet mode. Does not display the files being updated  on
         the standard output.


     -R

         Removes  extraneous  files.  If  a  directory  is  being
         updated,  removes  files  on the remote host that do not
         correspond to those in  the  master  (local)  directory.
         This is useful for maintaining truly identical copies of
         directories.


     -v

         Verifies that the files are up to date on all the hosts.
         Any  files  that  are  out of date are displayed, but no
         files are updated, nor is any mail sent.


     -w

         Whole mode. The whole file name is appended to the  des-
         tination  directory  name.  Normally, only the last com-
         ponent of a name  is  used  when  renaming  files.  This
         preserves  the  directory  structure  of the files being
         copied, instead of flattening the  directory  structure.
         For instance, renaming a list of files such as dir1/dir2
         to dir3  would  create  files  dir3/dir1  and  dir3/dir2
         instead  of  dir3  and  dir3. When the -w option is used
         with a filename that begins with  ~,  everything  except
         the home directory is appended to the destination name.


     -x

         Causes the information transferred between hosts  to  be
         encrypted.  Notice  that the command is sent unencrypted
         to the  remote  system.  All  subsequent  transfers  are
         encrypted.

     -y

         Younger mode. Does not update  remote  copies  that  are
         younger  than the master copy, but issues a warning mes-
         sage instead. Only modification times  are  checked.  No
         comparison of size is made.


USAGE
  White Space Characters
     NEWLINE, TAB, and SPACE characters are all treated as  white
     space;  a  mapping  continues  across  input lines until the
     start of the next mapping: either a single filename followed
     by a `->' or the opening parenthesis of a filename list.

  Comments
     Comments begin with # and end with a NEWLINE.

  Distfiles
     The distfile contains a sequence of entries that specify the
     files  to be copied, the destination files to be copied, the
     destination hosts, and what operations to perform to do  the
     updating. Each entry has one of the following formats:

       variable_name '=' name_list
       [ label: ] source_list '->' destination_list command_list
       [ label: ] source_list '::' time_stamp_file command_list



     The first format is used for defining variables. The  second
     format  is  used  for distributing files to other hosts. The
     third format is used for making lists  of  files  that  have
     been  changed  since some given date. The source list speci-
     fies a list of files and/or directories on  the  local  host
     that are to be used as the master copy for distribution. The
     destination list is the list of hosts to which  these  files
     are to be copied. Each file in the source list is added to a
     list of changes if the file is out of date on the host  that
     is  being  updated  (second  format) or if the file is newer
     than  the  time  stamp  file  (third  format).  Labels   are
     optional.  They  are  used to identify a command for partial
     updates. The colon (:) is  used  after  an  optional  label,
     while  the  double  colon  (::)  is used for making lists of
     files that have been changed since a certain date (specified
     by  the  date/time  of the time_stamp file). Typically, only
     notify is used with the '::' format of the command line.

  Macros
     rdist has a limited macro facility. Macros are only expanded
     in  filename or hostname lists, and in the argument lists of
     certain primitives. Macros  cannot  be  used  to  stand  for
     primitives or their options, or the `->' or `::' symbols.


     A macro definition is a line of the form:

       macro = value



     A macro reference is a string of the form:

       ${macro}



     although (as with make(1S)) the braces can be omitted if the
     macro name consists of just one character.

  Kerberos Access-Control file
     For the kerberized rdist session, each  user  might  have  a
     private  authorization list in a file .k5login in their home
     directory. Each line in this file should contain a  Kerberos
     principal  name  of  the  form  principal/instance@realm. If
     there is a ~/.k5login file, then access is  granted  to  the
     account  if and only if the originater user is authenticated
     to one of the principals named in the ~/.k5login file.  Oth-
     erwise,  the  originating  user  is  granted  access  to the
     account if and only if the authenticated principal  name  of
     the  user  can be mapped to the local account name using the
     authenticated-principal-name  ->   local-user-name   mapping
     rules.  The  .k5login  file  (for access control) comes into
     play only when Kerberos authentication is being done.

  Metacharacters
     The shell meta-characters: [, ], {, }, * and  ?  are  recog-
     nized and expanded (on the local host only) just as they are
     with csh(1). Metacharacters can be escaped by  prepending  a
     backslash.


     The ~ character is also expanded in the  same  way  as  with
     csh;  however,  it  is  expanded separately on the local and
     destination hosts.

  Filenames
     File names that do not begin with `/' or `~' are taken to be
     relative  to user's home directory on each destination host;
     they are not relative to the current working directory. Mul-
     tiple file names must be enclosed within parentheses.

  Primitives

     The following primitives can  be  used  to  specify  actions
     rdist is to take when updating remote copies of each file.

     install [-b] [-h] [-i] [-R] [-v] [-w] [-y] [newname]

         Copy out of date files and directories (recursively). If
         no  newname operand is given, the name of the local file
         is given to the remote host's copy. If absent  from  the
         remote host, parent directories in a filename's path are
         created. To help prevent disasters, a  non-empty  direc-
         tory  on  a  target  host is not replaced with a regular
         file or a symbolic link by rdist.  However,  when  using
         the  -R  option, a non-empty directory is removed if the
         corresponding filename is completely absent on the  mas-
         ter host.

         The options for install have the same semantics as their
         command line counterparts, but are limited in scope to a
         particular map. The login name used on  the  destination
         host  is  the same as the local host unless the destina-
         tion name is of the format login@host. In that case, the
         update is performed under the username login.


     notify address...

         Send mail to the indicated email address of the form:

         user@host

         that lists the files updated and any errors  that  might
         have  occurred. If an address does not contain a `@host'
         suffix, rdist uses the name of the destination  host  to
         complete the address.


     except filename ...

         Omit from updates the files named as arguments.


     except_pat pattern ...

         Omit  from  updates  the  filenames  that   match   each
         regular-expression  pattern (see ed(1) for more informa-
         tion on regular expressions).  Note  that  `\'  and  `$'
         characters  must be escaped in the distfile. Shell vari-
         ables can also be used within a pattern,  however  shell
         filename expansion is not supported.



     special [filename] ... "command-line"

         Specify a Bourne shell, sh(1) command line to execute on
         the  remote host after each named file is updated. If no
         filename argument is present, the command-line  is  per-
         formed  for  every updated file, with the shell variable
         FILE set to the file's name on the local host. The  quo-
         tation  marks  allow command-line to span input lines in
         the distfile; multiple shell commands must be  separated
         by semicolons (;).

         The default working directory for  the  shell  executing
         each  command-line  is  the user's home directory on the
         remote host.


  IPv6
     The rdist command is IPv6-enabled. See ip6(7P). IPv6 is  not
     currently supported with Kerberos V5 authentication.

EXAMPLES
     Example 1 A Sample distfile


     The following sample distfile instructs  rdist  to  maintain
     identical  copies of a shared library, a shared-library ini-
     tialized data file, several include files, and a  directory,
     on hosts named hermes and magus. On magus, commands are exe-
     cuted as super-user. rdist notifies merlin@druid whenever it
     discovers that a local file has changed relative to a times-
     tamp file. (Parentheses are used when the source or destina-
     tion  list  contains  zero or more names separated by white-
     space.)


       HOSTS = ( hermes root@magus )

       FILES = ( /usr/local/lib/libcant.so.1.1
                    /usrlocal/lib/libcant.sa.1.1 /usr/local/include/{*.h}
                    /usr/local/bin )

       (${FILES}) -> (${HOSTS})
             install -R ;
       ${FILES} :: /usr/local/lib/timestamp
                   notify merlin@druid ;



FILES
     ~/.rhosts              User's trusted hosts and users


     /etc/host.equiv        system trusted hosts and users


     /tmp/rdist*            Temporary file for update lists


     $HOME/.k5login         File containing  Kerberos  principals
                            that are allowed access


     /etc/krb5/krb5.conf    Kerberos configuration file


ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:



     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWrcmdc                   |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     csh(1),  ed(1),  make(1S),  sh(1),   in.rshd(1M),   stat(2),
     hosts.equiv(4),         krb5.conf(4),         attributes(5),
     krb5_auth_rules(5), ip6(7P)

DIAGNOSTICS
     A complaint about mismatch of rdist  version  numbers  might
     really  stem from some problem with starting your shell, for
     example, you are in too many groups.

WARNINGS
     The  super-user  does  not  have   its   accustomed   access
     privileges  on NFS mounted file systems. Using rdist to copy
     to such a file system might fail, or  the  copies  might  be
     owned by user "nobody".

BUGS
     Source files must reside or be mounted on the local host.


     There is no easy way to have a special command executed only
     once after all files in a directory have been updated.


     Variable expansion only works for name lists;  there  should
     be a general macro facility.
     rdist aborts on files that have a negative modification time
     (before Jan 1, 1970).


     There should be a "force" option  to  allow  replacement  of
     non-empty  directories by regular files or symlinks. A means
     of updating file modes and  owners  of  otherwise  identical
     files is also needed.










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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