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tail


NAME
     tail - deliver the last part of a file

SYNOPSIS
     /usr/bin/tail [ _s number [lbcr]] [file]

     /usr/bin/tail [-lbcr] [file]

     /usr/bin/tail [ _ number [lbcf]] [file]

     /usr/bin/tail [-lbcf] [file]

     /usr/xpg4/bin/tail  [-f  |  -r]   [-c number  |   -n number]
     [file]

     /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [ _ number [l | b | c]  [f]] [file]

     /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [ _ number [l] [f | r] ] [file]

DESCRIPTION
     The tail utility copies the named file to the standard  out-
     put  beginning  at  a designated place. If no file is named,
     the standard input is used.

     Copying begins at a point  in  the  file  indicated  by  the
     -cnumber, -nnumber, or _number options (if +number is speci-
     fied, begins at  distance  number  from  the  beginning;  if
     -number  is  specified, from the end of the input; if number
     is NULL, the value 10 is  assumed).  number  is  counted  in
     units  of lines or byte according to the -c  or  -n options,
     or lines, blocks, or bytes, according to the appended option
     l,  b,  or  c.  When  no units are specified, counting is by
     lines.

OPTIONS
     The following options are supported for  both  /usr/bin/tail
     and  /usr/xpg4/bin/tail.  The -r and -f options are mutually
     exclusive. If both are specified on the command line, the -f
     option is ignored.

     -b       Units of blocks.



     -c       Units of bytes.



     -f       Follow. If the input-file is not a pipe,  the  pro-
              gram  does  not  terminate  after  the  line of the
              input-file has been copied, but enters  an  endless
              loop,  wherein  it  sleeps  for  a  second and then
              attempts to read and copy further records from  the
              input-file.  Thus  it  can  be  used to monitor the
              growth of a file that  is  being  written  by  some
              other process.



     -l       Units of lines.



     -r       Reverse. Copies lines from the  specified  starting
              point in the file in reverse order. The default for
              r is to print the entire file in reverse order.



  /usr/xpg4/bin/tail
     The following options are supported  for  /usr/xpg4/bin/tail
     only:

     -c number       The number option-argument must be a decimal
                     integer  whose  sign affects the location in
                     the file, measured in bytes,  to  begin  the
                     copying:


                     +        Copying  starts  relative  to   the
                              beginning of the file.




                     -        Copying starts relative to the  end
                              of the file.



                     none     Copying starts relative to the  end
                              of the file.


                     The origin for counting is 1; that is,  -c+1
                     represents  the first byte of the file, -c-1
                     the last.


     -n number       Equivalent to -cnumber, except the  starting
                     location  in  the  file is measured in lines
                     instead of bytes. The origin for counting is
                     1.  That  is, -n+1 represents the first line
                     of the file, -n-1 the last.

OPERANDS
     The following operand is supported:

     file     A path name of an input file. If no  file  operands
              are specified, the standard input is used.



USAGE
     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of tail
     when encountering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2
    **31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
     Example 1: Using the tail Command

     The following command prints the last ten lines of the  file
     fred,  followed  by  any  lines  that  are  appended to fred
     between the time tail is initiated and killed.

     example% tail -f fred

     The next command prints the last 15 bytes of the file  fred,
     followed  by any lines that are appended to fred between the
     time tail is initiated and killed:

     example% tail -15cf fred

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
     See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment
     variables  that  affect the execution of tail: LANG, LC_ALL,
     LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
     The following exit values are returned:

     0        Successful completion.



     >0       An error occurred.



ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

  /usr/bin/tail



     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | Enabled                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


  /usr/xpg4/bin/tail
     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWxcu4                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | CSI                         | Enabled                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     cat(1),  head(1),  more(1),  pg(1),  dd(1M),  attributes(5),
     environ(5), largefile(5), standards(5)

NOTES
     Piped tails relative to the end of the file are stored in  a
     buffer,  and  thus  are  limited in length. Various kinds of
     anomalous behavior can happen with character special files.










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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