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fdisk


NAME
     fdisk - create or modify fixed disk partition table

SYNOPSIS
     fdisk [-o offset] [-s size] [-P fill_patt] [-S geom_file]
          [-w | -r | -d | -n | -I | -B | -t | -T | -g | -G | -R | -E]
          [--F fdisk_file] [ [-v] -W {fdisk_file | -}]
          [-h] [-b masterboot]
          [-A id : act : bhead : bsect : bcyl : ehead : esect :
              ecyl : rsect : numsect]
          [-D id : act : bhead: bsect : bcyl : ehead: esect :
              ecyl : rsect : numsect] rdevice


DESCRIPTION
     This command is used to do the following:

         o    Create and modify an fdisk partition table  on  x86
              systems

         o    Create and  modify  an  fdisk  partition  table  on
              removable media on SPARC or x86 systems

         o    Install the master boot record that is put  in  the
              first sector of the fixed disk on x86 systems only


     This  table  is  used  by  the  first-stage  bootstrap   (or
     firmware)  to  identify  parts of the disk reserved for dif-
     ferent operating systems, and to identify the partition con-
     taining  the second-stage bootstrap (the active Solaris par-
     tition). The rdevice argument must be used  to  specify  the
     raw  device  associated  with  the  fixed disk, for example,
     /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0p0.


     The program can operate in three different modes. The  first
     is  interactive  mode.  In  interactive  mode,  the  program
     displays the partition table as it exists on the  disk,  and
     then  presents a menu allowing the user to modify the table.
     The  menu,  questions,  warnings,  and  error  messages  are
     intended to be self-explanatory.


     In interactive mode, if there is no partition table  on  the
     disk,  the  user  is given the options of creating a default
     partitioning or specifying the  initial  table  values.  The
     default  partitioning  allocates  the  entire  disk  for the
     Solaris  system  and  makes  the  Solaris  system  partition
     active.  In  either case, when the initial table is created,
     fdisk also writes out the first-stage bootstrap  (x86  only)
     code  along  with  the  partition  table.  In this mode (x86
     only), when creating an entry for a non-EFI partition  on  a
     disk  that is larger than 2 TB (terabytes), fdisk warns that
     the maximum size of the partition is 2 TB. Under these  con-
     ditions percentages displayed by  fdisk are based on 2 TB.


     The second mode of operation is  used  for  automated  entry
     addition, entry deletion, or replacement of the entire fdisk
     table. This mode can add or delete an entry described on the
     command  line.  In  this  mode the entire fdisk table can be
     read in from a file replacing the original table. fdisk  can
     also  be  used  to create this file. There is a command line
     option that will cause fdisk to replace any fdisk table with
     the default of the whole disk for the Solaris system.


     The third mode of operation is used for disk diagnostics. In
     this  mode,  a section of the disk can be filled with a user
     specified pattern, and mode sections of the disk can also be
     read or written.


     When fdisk creates a partition, the space  is  allocated  in
     the  fdisk  partition table, but the allocated disk space is
     not initialized. newfs(1M) is required to create  and  write
     file system metadata to the new partition, and format(1M) is
     required to write the VTOC or EFI/GPT metadata.

  Menu Options
     The menu options for interactive mode  given  by  the  fdisk
     program are:

     Create a partition

         This option allows the user to create a  new  partition.
         The  maximum number of partitions is 4. The program will
         ask for the type  of  the  partition  (SOLARIS,  MS-DOS,
         UNIX,  or  other).  It will then ask for the size of the
         partition as a percentage of the disk. The user may also
         enter the letter c at this point, in which case the pro-
         gram will ask for the starting cylinder number and  size
         of  the  partition  in cylinders. If a c is not entered,
         the program will determine the starting cylinder  number
         where  the  partition  will  fit. In either case, if the
         partition would overlap an existing  partition  or  will
         not  fit, a message is displayed and the program returns
         to the original menu.


     Change Active (Boot from) partition

         This option allows the user  to  specify  the  partition
         where  the  first-stage  bootstrap  will  look  for  the
         second-stage bootstrap, otherwise known  as  the  active
         partition.


     Delete a partition

         This option allows  the  user  to  delete  a  previously
         created  partition. Note that this will destroy all data
         in that partition.


     Change between Solaris and Solaris2 Partition IDs

         This option  allows  the  user  to  switch  between  the
         current  fdisk operating system partition identifier and
         the previous one. This does not affect any data  in  the
         disk  partition  and  is provided for compatibility with
         older software.



     Use the following options to include your  modifications  to
     the  partition  table  at this time or to cancel the session
     without modifying the table:

     Exit      This option writes the new version  of  the  table
               created  during this session with fdisk out to the
               fixed disk, and exits the program.


     Cancel    This option exits without modifying the  partition
               table.


OPTIONS
     The following options apply to fdisk:

     -A id:act:bhead:bsect:bcyl:ehead:esect:ecyl:rsect:numsect

         Add a partition as described by the argument (see the -F
         option  below  for  the format). Use of this option will
         zero out the VTOC on the Solaris partition if the  fdisk
         table changes.


     -b master_boot

         Specify the file master_boot as the master boot program.
         The      default      master     boot     program     is
         /usr/lib/fs/ufs/mboot.

     -B

         Default to one Solaris partition  that  uses  the  whole
         disk. On an x86 machine, if the disk is larger than 2 TB
         (terabytes), the default size of the  Solaris  partition
         will be limited to 2 TB.


     -d

         Turn on verbose debug mode. This  will  cause  fdisk  to
         print its state on stderr as it is used. The output from
         this option should not be used with -F.


     -D id:act:bhead:bsect:bcyl:ehead:esect:ecyl:rsect:numsect

         Delete a partition as described by the argument (see the
         -F  option below for the format). Note that the argument
         must be an exact match or the entry will not be deleted!
         Use of this option will zero out the VTOC on the Solaris
         partition if the fdisk table changes.


     -E

         Create an EFI partition that uses the entire disk.


     -F fdisk_file

         Use fdisk file fdisk_file to initialize  table.  Use  of
         this option will zero out the VTOC on the Solaris parti-
         tion if the fdisk table changes.

         The fdisk_file contains up to four specification  lines.
         Each  line  is  delimited by a new-line character (0. If
         the first character of a line is an  asterisk  (*),  the
         line  is  treated as a comment. Each line is composed of
         entries that are position-dependent,  are  separated  by
         ``white  space''  or colons, and have the following for-
         mat:

         id act bhead bsect bcyl ehead esect ecyl rsect numsect

         where the entries have the following values:

         id         This is the type of partition and the correct
                    numeric values may be found in fdisk.h.



         act        This is the active partition  flag;  0  means
                    not active and 128 means active.


         bhead      This is the head where the partition  starts.
                    If  this  is  set  to 0, fdisk will correctly
                    fill this in from other information.


         bsect      This  is  the  sector  where  the   partition
                    starts.  If  this  is  set  to  0, fdisk will
                    correctly fill this in  from  other  informa-
                    tion.


         bcyl       This is  the  cylinder  where  the  partition
                    starts.  If  this  is  set  to  0, fdisk will
                    correctly fill this in  from  other  informa-
                    tion.


         ehead      This is the head where the partition ends. If
                    this  is  set to 0, fdisk will correctly fill
                    this in from other information.


         esect      This is the sector where the partition  ends.
                    If  this  is  set  to 0, fdisk will correctly
                    fill this in from other information.


         ecyl       This is  the  cylinder  where  the  partition
                    ends.  If  this  is  set  to  0,  fdisk  will
                    correctly fill this in  from  other  informa-
                    tion.


         rsect      The relative sector from the beginning of the
                    disk where the partition starts. This must be
                    specified and can be used by fdisk to fill in
                    other fields.


         numsect    The size in sectors of this  disk  partition.
                    This  must  be  specified  and can be used by
                    fdisk to fill in other fields.



     -g

         Get the label geometry for disk and  display  on  stdout
         (see the -S option for the format).


     -G

         Get the physical geometry for disk and display on stdout
         (see the -S option for the format).


     -h

         Issue verbose message; message will list all options and
         supply an explanation for each.


     -I

         Forgo device checks. This is used  to  generate  a  file
         image  of what would go on a disk without using the dev-
         ice. Note that you must use -S  with  this  option  (see
         above).


     -n

         Don't update fdisk table unless explicitly specified  by
         another  option.  If  no other options are used, -n will
         only write the master boot record to the disk. In  addi-
         tion,  note  that  fdisk will not come up in interactive
         mode if the -n option is specified.


     -o offset

         Block offset from start of disk. This option is used for
         -P,  -r, and -w. Zero is assumed when this option is not
         used.


     -P fill_patt

         Fill disk  with  pattern  fill_patt.  fill_patt  can  be
         decimal  or  hex and is used as number for constant long
         word pattern. If fill_patt is #, then pattern is block #
         for  each  block.  Pattern  is put in each block as long
         words and fills each block (see -o and -s).


     -r

         Read from disk and write to stdout. See -o and -s, which
         specify the starting point and size of the operation.

     -R

         Treat disk as read-only. This is for testing purposes.


     -s size

         Number of blocks to perform operation on (see -o).


     -S geom_file

         Set the label geometry to the content of the  geom_file.
         The geom_file contains one specification line. Each line
         is delimited by a new-line character (0.  If  the  first
         character  of  a  line  is  an asterisk (*), the line is
         treated as a comment. Each line is composed  of  entries
         that  are  position-dependent,  are  separated  by white
         space, and have the following format:

           pcyl ncyl acyl bcyl nheads nsectors sectsiz


         where the entries have the following values:

         pcyl        This is the number of physical cylinders for
                     the drive.


         ncyl        This is the number of usable  cylinders  for
                     the drive.


         acyl        This is the number of alt cylinders for  the
                     drive.


         bcyl        This is the number of offset  cylinders  for
                     the drive (should be zero).


         nheads      The number of heads for this drive.


         nsectors    The number of sectors per track.


         sectsiz     The size in bytes of a sector.




     -t

         Adjust incorrect slice table entries so that  they  will
         not cross partition table boundaries.


     -T

         Remove incorrect slice table entries that span partition
         table boundaries.


     -v

         Output  the  HBA  (virtual)  geometry  dimensions.  This
         option  must  be  used  in conjunction with the -W flag.
         This option will work for platforms which  support  vir-
         tual geometry. (x86 only)


     -w

         Write to disk and read from stdin. See -o and -s,  which
         specify the starting point and size of the operation.


     -W -

         Output the disk table to stdout.


     -W fdisk_file

         Create an fdisk file fdisk_file from  disk  table.  This
         can be used with the -F option below.


FILES
     /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0p0       Raw  device  associated  with   the
                              fixed disk.


     /usr/lib/fs/ufs/mboot    Default master boot program.


ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:




     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Architecture                | x86 and SPARC               |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     uname(1), fmthard(1M), format(1M),  newfs(1M),  prtvtoc(1M),
     attributes(5)

DIAGNOSTICS
     Most messages will be self-explanatory.  The  following  may
     appear immediately after starting the program:

     Fdisk: cannot open <device>

         This indicates that the  device  name  argument  is  not
         valid.


     Fdisk: unable to get device parameters for device <device>

         This indicates a problem with the configuration  of  the
         fixed disk, or an error in the fixed disk driver.


     Fdisk: error reading partition table

         This indicates that some error occurred when trying ini-
         tially  to  read the fixed disk. This could be a problem
         with the fixed disk controller or driver,  or  with  the
         configuration of the fixed disk.


     Fdisk: error writing boot record

         This indicates that some error occurred when  trying  to
         write  the  new  partition  table out to the fixed disk.
         This could be a problem with the fixed disk  controller,
         the disk itself, the driver, or the configuration of the
         fixed disk.









Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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