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     named, in.named - Internet domain name server

     named [-fgsv] [-c config-file] [-d debug-level] [-n #cpus]
         [-p port] [-t directory] [-u user] [-x cache-file] [-4 | -6]

     The named utility is a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part
     of the BIND 9 distribution from ISC. For more information on
     the DNS, see RFCs 1033, 1034, and 1035.

     When invoked without arguments, named reads the default con-
     figuration file /etc/named.conf, reads any initial data, and
     listens for queries.

     in.named is a link to named.

     The following options are supported:


         Use only IPv4 transport. By default, both IPv4 and  IPv6
         transports  can  be used. Options -4 and -6 are mutually


         Use only IPv6 transport. By default, both IPv4 and  IPv6
         transports  can  be used. Options -4 and -6 are mutually

     -c config-file

         Use config-file as the configuration file instead of the
         default  /etc/named.conf.  To  ensure that reloading the
         configuration file continues to work  after  the  server
         has  changed  its working directory due to to a possible
         directory option in the configuration file,  config-file
         should be an absolute pathname.

     -d debug-level

         Set the daemon's debug level to  debug-level.  Debugging
         traces from named become more verbose as the debug level


         Run the server in the foreground (that is, do  not  dae-


         Run the server in the foreground and force  all  logging
         to stderr.

     -n #cpus

         Create #cpus worker threads to take advantage of  multi-
         ple  CPUs. If not specified, named will try to determine
         the number of CPUs present and  create  one  thread  per
         CPU.  If it is unable to determine the number of CPUs, a
         single worker thread will be created.

     -p port

         Listen for queries on port port. If not  specified,  the
         default is port 53.


         Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.

         This option is mainly of interest to BIND  9  developers
         and might be removed or changed in a future release.

     -t directory

         Change the root directory using chroot(2)  to  directory
         after  processing the command line arguments, but before
         reading the configuration file.

         This option should be used in conjunction  with  the  -u
         option,  as  chrooting a process running as root doesn't
         enhance security on most systems; the  way  chroot()  is
         defined  allows a process with root privileges to escape
         a chroot jail.

     -u user

         Set the real user ID using setuid(2) to user after  com-
         pleting  privileged operations, such as creating sockets
         that listen on privileged ports.

         On Linux, named uses the kernel's  capability  mechanism
         to  drop  all  root privileges except the ability to use
         bind(3SOCKET) to bind to a privileged port and set  pro-
         cess resource limits. Unfortunately, this means that the
         -u option works only when named is run on kernel  2.2.18
         or later, or kernel 2.3.99-pre3 or later, since previous
         kernels did not allow privileges to  be  retained  after


         Report the version number and exit.

     -x cache-file

         Load data from cache-file into the cache of the  default

         This option must not be used. It is of interest only  to
         BIND  9  developers and might be removed or changed in a
         future release.

     This section describes additional attributes of named.

  SMF Properties
     When starting named from the  service  management  facility,
     smf(5),  named configuration is read from the service confi-
     guration repository.  Use svcprop(1) to list the  properties
     and svccfg(1M) to make changes.

     The  following  application  configuration  properties   are
     available to administrators:


         Specifies the server executable to be  used  instead  of
         the default server, /usr/sbin/named.


         Specifies the configuration file to be used  instead  of
         the  default,  /etc/named.conf. A directory option might
         be specified in the configuration file. To  ensure  that
         reloading  the  configuration  file continues to work in
         such a situation, configuration_file should be specified
         as  an  absolute  pathname.  This  pathname  should  not
         include the chroot_dir pathname. This  property  is  the
         equivalent of the -c option.


         Specifies over which IP transport, IPv4  or  IPv6,  BIND
         will  transmit.  Possible  values  are IPv4 or IPv6. Any
         other setting assumes all, the default. This property is
         the equivalent of command line option -4 or -6


         Specifies the default UDP and TCP port to  be  used  for
         listening   to   DNS  requests.  This  property  is  the
         equivalent of the command line option -p port.


         Specifies the default debug level.  The  default  is  0,
         which means no debugging. The higher the number the more
         verbose debug information  becomes.  Equivalent  of  the
         command line option -d debug_level.


         Specifies the number of CPU worker  threads  to  create.
         The  default  of 0 causes named to try and determine the
         number of CPUs present and create one  thread  per  CPU.
         Equivalent of command line option -n #cpus.


         Specifies the directory to be used as the root directory
         after  processing  SMF  properties  and the command line
         arguments but before reading the configuration file. Use
         this   property  when  using  a  chroot(2)  environment.
         Synonymous to command line option -t pathname.

         When using chroot(2), named is unable to disable  itself
         when  receiving rndc(1M) stop or halt commands. Instead,
         you must use the svcadm(1M) disable command.

     In the event of a configuration error originating in one  of
     the  above SMF application options, named displays a message
     providing information about the  error  and  the  parameters
     that  need correcting. The process then exits with exit code

     At startup, in the event of an error other than a configura-
     tion  error,  named exits with exit code SMF_EXIT_ERR_FATAL.
     Both of this code and SMF_EXIT_ERR_CONFIG  cause  the  start
     method,  smf_method(5),  to place the service in the mainte-
     nance state, which can be observed with the svcs(1)  command
     svcs -x.

     In addition to the properties listed  above,  the  following
     property  can  be  used to invoke named as a user other than


         Specifies the identity of  the  user  that  is  invoking
         named. See smf_method(5) and chroot(2).

     In routine operation, signals should not be used to  control
     the nameserver; rndc(1M) should be used instead.


         Force a reload of the server.


         Shut down the server.

     The result of sending any other signals  to  the  server  is

     The named configuration file is too complex to  describe  in
     detail  here. A complete description is provided in the BIND
     9 Administrator Reference Manual. See SEE ALSO.

     Example 1 Configuring named to Transmit Only over IPv4  Net-

     The following command sequence configures named such that it
     will transmit only over IPv4 networks.

       # svccfg -s svc:network/dns/server:default setprop \
       > options/ip_interfaces=IPv4
       # svcadm refresh svc:network/dns/server:default

     Example 2 Listing Current Configuration File and Setting  an
     Alternative File

     The following sequence of commands lists the  current  named
     configuration file and sets an alternative file.

       # svcprop -p options/configuration_file dns/server:default
       # svccfg -s dns/server:default setprop \
       > options/configuration_file=/var/named/named.conf
       # svcadm refresh dns/server:default
       # svcprop -p options/configuration_file dns/server:default


         default configuration file


         default process-ID file

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWbind                    |
    | Interface Stability         | Standard                    |

     svcs(1), rndc(1M), rndc-confgen(1M), svcadm(1M), svccfg(1M),
     svcprop(1),   chroot(2),  setuid(2),  bind(3SOCKET),  attri-
     butes(5), smf(5), smf_method(5)
     RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035

     BIND 9 Administrator  Reference  Manual,  published  by  the
     Internet Systems Consortium and accessible at www.bind9.net

     Source for BIND9 is available in the SUNWbind9S package.

     By default, named attempts to contact remote name servers by
     either their IPv4 or IPv6 address, even though the host sys-
     tem does not have either IPv4 or IPv6 connectivity (that is,
     a  configured  and active interface). To address this issue,
     either provide the missing connectivity or use the  relevant
     -4  or  -6  command  line option. When using svccfg(1M), set
     application property options/ip_interfaces to either IPv4 or

Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.