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newfs


NAME
     newfs - construct a UFS file system

SYNOPSIS
     newfs [-NSBTv] [mkfs-options] raw-device

DESCRIPTION
     newfs is a "friendly" front-end to the mkfs(1M) program  for
     making UFS file systems on disk partitions. newfs calculates
     the appropriate parameters to use and calls mkfs.

     If run interactively (that is, standard  input  is  a  tty),
     newfs  prompts  for confirmation before making the file sys-
     tem.

     If the -N option is not specified and the inodes of the dev-
     ice are not randomized, newfs calls fsirand(1M).

     You must be super-user or have appropriate write  privileges
     to  use this command, except when creating a UFS file system
     on a diskette. See EXAMPLES.

  Creating a Multiterabyte UFS File System
     Keep the following limitations in mind when creating a  mul-
     titerabyte UFS file system:

       o  nbpi is set to 1 Mbyte unless you specifically  set  it
          higher.  You  cannot  set  nbpi lower than 1 Mbyte on a
          multiterabyte UFS file system.

       o  fragsize is set equal to bsize.


OPTIONS
     The following options are supported:

     -N              Print out the file  system  parameters  that
                     would  be  used  to  create  the file system
                     without actually creating the  file  system.
                     fsirand(1M) is not called here.



     -S              Sends to stdout a human-readable version  of
                     the  superblock that would be used to create
                     a filesystem with the  specified  configura-
                     tion parameters.



     -B              Sends to stdout a binary  (machine-readable)
                     version of the superblock that would be used
                     to create a filesystem  with  the  specified
                     configuration parameters.



     -T              Set the parameters of  the  file  system  to
                     allow  eventual growth to over a terabyte in
                     total file system  size.  This  option  sets
                     fragsize  to  be the same as bsize, and sets
                     nbpi to 1 Mbyte, unless  the  -i  option  is
                     used  to make it even larger. If you use the
                     -f or -i options to specify  a  fragsize  or
                     nbpi  that is incompatible with this option,
                     the user-supplied value of fragsize or  nbpi
                     is ignored.



     -v              Verbose.  newfs  prints  out  its   actions,
                     including the parameters passed to mkfs.



     mkfs-options    Options that override the default parameters
                     are:

                     -a apc

                         The  number  of  alternate  sectors  per
                         cylinder   to   reserve  for  bad  block
                         replacement for SCSI devices  only.  The
                         default is 0.

                         This option is not applicable for  disks
                         with EFI labels and is ignored.




                     -b bsize

                         The logical block size of the file  sys-
                         tem  in  bytes, either 4096 or 8192. The
                         default is 8192. The sun4u  architecture
                         does not support the 4096 block size.



                     -c cgsize

                         The number  of  cylinders  per  cylinder
                         group,  ranging  from  16  to  256.  The
                         default is calculated  by  dividing  the
                         number  of sectors in the file system by
                         the number of  sectors  in  a  gigabyte.
                         Then,  the  result  is multiplied by 32.
                         The default value is always  between  16
                         and 256.

                         mkfs  can  override  this   value.   See
                         mkfs_ufs(1M) for details.

                         This option is not applicable for  disks
                         with EFI labels and is ignored.



                     -C maxcontig

                         The maximum number  of  logical  blocks,
                         belonging  to  one  file, that are allo-
                         cated contiguously. The default is  cal-
                         culated as follows:


                         maxcontig = disk drive maximum transfer size / disk block size

                         If the  disk  drive's  maximum  transfer
                         size  cannot  be determined, the default
                         value for maxcontig is  calculated  from
                         kernel parameters as follows:

                         If maxphys is less than  ufs_maxmaxphys,
                         which is typically 1 Mbyte, then maxcon-
                         tig is set to maxphys.  Otherwise,  max-
                         contig is set to ufs_maxmaxphys.

                         You can set maxcontig  to  any  positive
                         integer value.

                         The actual value will be the  lesser  of
                         what  has  been  specified  and what the
                         hardware supports.

                         You can subsequently change this parame-
                         ter by using tunefs(1M).



                     -d gap

                         Rotational   delay.   This   option   is
                         obsolete  in the Solaris 10 release. The
                         value is always set to 0, regardless  of
                         the input value.



                     -f fragsize

                         The smallest amount  of  disk  space  in
                         bytes  that  can be allocated to a file.
                         fragsize must be a power of 2 divisor of
                         bsize, where:

                         bsize / fragsize is 1, 2, 4, or 8.

                         This means that  if  the  logical  block
                         size  is 4096, legal values for fragsize
                         are 512, 1024, 2048, and 4096. When  the
                         logical block size is 8192, legal values
                         are 1024,  2048,  4096,  and  8192.  The
                         default value is 1024.

                         For file systems greater than 1 terabyte
                         or  for file systems created with the -T
                         option,  fragsize  is  forced  to  match
                         block size (bsize).



                     -i nbpi

                         The number of  bytes  per  inode,  which
                         specifies  the  density of inodes in the
                         file system. The number is divided  into
                         the  total  size  of  the file system to
                         determine  the  number  of   inodes   to
                         create.

                         This value should reflect  the  expected
                         average  size  of files in the file sys-
                         tem. If  fewer  inodes  are  desired,  a
                         larger  number should be used. To create
                         more inodes, a smaller number should  be
                         given.  The  default for nbpi is as fol-
                         lows:


                         Disk size                 Density

                         Less than 1GB             2048
                         Less than 2GB             4096
                         Less than 3GB             6144
                         3GB to 1 Tbyte            8192
                         Greater than 1 Tbyte
                            or created with -T     1048576

                         The number of inodes can increase if the
                         file  system is expanded with the growfs
                         command.



                     -m free

                         The minimum percentage of free space  to
                         maintain  in the file system, between 0%
                         and  99%,  inclusively.  This  space  is
                         off-limits  to users. Once the file sys-
                         tem is filled to  this  threshold,  only
                         the  super-user  can continue writing to
                         the file system.

                         The  default  is  ((64  Mbytes/partition
                         size)   *  100),  rounded  down  to  the
                         nearest integer and limited  between  1%
                         and 10%, inclusively.

                         This  parameter  can   be   subsequently
                         changed using the tunefs(1M) command.



                     -n nrpos

                         The number of different rotational posi-
                         tions  in  which  to  divide  a cylinder
                         group. The default is 8.

                         This option is not applicable for  disks
                         with EFI labels and is ignored.



                     -o space|time

                         The file system can either be instructed
                         to  try to minimize the time spent allo-
                         cating blocks, or to try to minimize the
                         space  fragmentation  on  the  disk. The
                         default is time.

                         This  parameter  can   subsequently   be
                         changed with the tunefs(1M) command.



                     -r rpm

                         The rotational  speed  of  the  disk  in
                         revolutions  per  minute. The default is
                         driver- or device-specific.

                         Note that you specify rpm for newfs  and
                         rps for mkfs.

                         This option is not applicable for  disks
                         with EFI labels and is ignored.



                     -s size

                         The size of the file system in  sectors.
                         The  default is to use the entire parti-
                         tion.



                     -t ntrack

                         The number of tracks per cylinder on the
                         disk. The default is taken from the disk
                         label.

                         This option is not applicable for  disks
                         with EFI labels and is ignored.




OPERANDS
     The following operands are supported:

     raw-device      The name of a raw special device residing in
                     the    /dev    directory    (for    example,
                     /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6) on which to  create  the
                     file system.



USAGE
     See largefile(5) for the  description  of  the  behavior  of
     newfs  when  encountering  files  greater than or equal to 2
     Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
     Example 1: Displaying the Parameters  for  the  Raw  Special
     Device
     The following example verbosely displays the parameters  for
     the  raw  special  device,  c0t0d0s6.  It  does not actually
     create a new file system:

     example# newfs -Nv /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6
     mkfs -F ufs -o N /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6 1112940 54 15 8192 1024 16 10 60
     2048 t 0 -1 8 /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s6: 1112940 sectors in
     1374 cylinders of 15 tracks, 54 sectors 569.8MB in 86 cyl
     groups (16 c/g, 6.64MB/g, 3072 i/g) super-block backups
     (for fsck -b #) at:
     32, 13056, 26080, 39104, 52128, 65152, 78176, 91200, 104224, ...

     Example 2: Creating a UFS File System

     The following  example  creates  a  UFS  file  system  on  a
     diskette that is managed by Volume Manager.

     example% newfs /vol/dev/aliases/floppy0
     newfs: construct a new file system /vol/dev/aliases/floppy0: (y/n)? y
     /vol/dev/aliases/floppy0: 2880 sectors in 80 cylinders of 2 tracks,
     18 sectors 1.4MB in 5 cyl groups (16 c/g, 0.28MB/g, 128 i/g)
     super-block backups (for fsck -F ufs -o b=#) at:
     32, 640, 1184, 1792, 2336, ...

     Example 3: Creating a UFS File System That  Will  Eventually
     Be Grown to a Multiterabyte UFS File System

     The following example creates a UFS file  system  that  will
     eventually be grown to a multiterabyte UFS file system.

     This command creates a 800-Gbyte file system on the  volume,
     /dev/md/rdsk/d99.

     # newfs -T /dev/md/rdsk/d99
     newfs: construct a new file system /dev/md/rdsk/d99: (y/n)? y
        /dev/md/rdsk/d99: 1677754368 sectors in 45512 cylinders of
        144 tracks, 256 sectors
        819216.0MB in 1821 cyl groups (25 c/g, 450.00MB/g, 448 i/g) ...

     Then, if you increase the volume size for this file  system,
     you  can  use  the growfs command to expand the file system.
     The file system is grown to 1.2 terabytes in this example:

     # growfs -v /dev/md/rdsk/d99
     /usr/lib/fs/ufs/mkfs -G /dev/md/rdsk/d99 2516631552 /dev/md/rdsk/d99:
        2516631552 sectors in 68268 cylinders of 144 tracks, 256  sectors
        1228824.0MB in 2731 cyl groups (25 c/g, 450.00MB/g, 448 i/g)...

EXIT STATUS
     The following exit values are returned:


     0        The operation was successful.



     1, 10    Usage error or internal error. A message is  output
              to STDERR explaining the error.



     Other exit values may be  returned  by  mkfs(1M),  which  is
     called by newfs.

ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     fsck(1M), fsck_ufs(1M), fsirand(1M), mkfs(1M), mkfs_ufs(1M),
     tunefs(1M), attributes(5), largefile(5), ufs(7FS)

DIAGNOSTICS
     newfs: No such file or directory        The device specified
                                             does not exist, or a
                                             disk  partition  was
                                             not specified.



     special: cannot open                    You    must    write
                                             access to the device
                                             to use this command.










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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