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ping


NAME
     ping - send ICMP (ICMP6)  ECHO_REQUEST  packets  to  network
     hosts

SYNOPSIS
     /usr/sbin/ping host [timeout]

     /usr/sbin/ping -s [-l |  -U]   [-adlLnrRv]  [-A addr_family]
     [-c traffic_class]   [-g gateway    [  -g   gateway...]]  [-
     F flow_label]  [-I interval]  [-i interface]   [-P tos]   [-
     p port] [-t ttl] host [data_size] [npackets]

DESCRIPTION
     The  utility  ping  utilizes  the  ICMP  (ICMP6   in   IPv6)
     protocol's  ECHO_REQUEST  datagram to elicit an ICMP (ICMP6)
     ECHO_RESPONSE from the specified host or network gateway. If
     host responds, ping will print:


     host is alive


     on the standard output and exit.  Otherwise,  after  timeout
     seconds, it will write:


     no answer from host


     The default value of timeout is 20 seconds.

     When you specify the s flag, sends one datagram  per  second
     (adjust  with  -I)  and  prints one line of output for every
     ECHO_RESPONSE that it receives. ping produces no  output  if
     there  is  no  response.  In this second form, ping computes
     round trip times and packet loss statistics; it  displays  a
     summary of this information upon termination or timeout. The
     default data_size is 56 bytes, or you  can  specify  a  size
     with  the  data_size  command-line argument.  If you specify
     the optional npackets, ping sends  ping  requests  until  it
     either   sends   npackets   requests  or  receives  npackets
     replies.

     When using ping for fault isolation, first  ping  the  local
     host to verify that the local network interface is running.

OPTIONS
     The following options are supported:

     -A addr_family          Specify the address  family  of  the
                             target   host.  addr_family  can  be
                             either inet or inet6. Address family
                             determines  which  protocol  to use.
                             For an argument  of  inet,  IPv4  is
                             used. For inet6, IPv6 is used.

                             By default, if the name of a host is
                             provided,   not   the   literal   IP
                             address, and a  valid  IPv6  address
                             exists in the name service database,
                             ping will use this  address.  Other-
                             wise,  if  the name service database
                             contains an IPv4  address,  it  will
                             try the IPv4 address.

                             Specify the address family  inet  or
                             inet6   to   override   the  default
                             behavior. If the argument  specified
                             is  inet,  ping  will  use  the IPv4
                             address  associated  with  the  host
                             name.  If  none  exists,  ping  will
                             state that the host is  unknown  and
                             exit.  It  does not try to determine
                             if an IPv6  address  exists  in  the
                             name service database.

                             If the specified argument is  inet6,
                             ping  uses  the IPv6 address that is
                             associated with the  host  name.  If
                             none  exists,  ping  states that the
                             host is unknown and exits.



     -F flow_label           Specify  the  flow  label  of  probe
                             packets.   The   value  must  be  an
                             integer  in  the  range  from  0  to
                             1048575.  This  option is valid only
                             on IPv6.



     -I interval             Turn  on  the  statistics  mode  and
                             specify the interval between succes-
                             sive transmissions. The  default  is
                             one  second.  See  the discussion of
                             the -s option.



     -L                      Turn off loopback of multicast pack-
                             ets.  Normally,  members  are in the
                             host group on  the  outgoing  inter-
                             face,   a   copy  of  the  multicast
                             packets will  be  delivered  to  the
                             local machine.



     -P tos                  Set the type  of  service  (tos)  in
                             probe   packets   to  the  specified
                             value.  The  default  is  zero.  The
                             value  must  be  an  integer  in the
                             range from 0 to 255.  Gateways  also
                             in  the  path  can  route  the probe
                             packet differently,  depending  upon
                             the  value of tos that is set in the
                             probe packet. This option  is  valid
                             only on IPv4.



     -R                      Record route.  Sets the IPv4  record
                             route option, which stores the route
                             of  the  packet  inside   the   IPv4
                             header.  The  contents of the record
                             route are only printed if the -v and
                             -s  options are given. They are only
                             set on return packets if the  target
                             host   preserves  the  record  route
                             option  across  echos,  or  the   -l
                             option  is  given.  This  option  is
                             valid only on IPv4.



     -U                      Send UDP  packets  instead  of  ICMP
                             (ICMP6)   packets.  ping  sends  UDP
                             packets to consecutive ports expect-
                             ing  to  receive  back  ICMP (ICMP6)
                             PORT_UNREACHABLE  from  the   target
                             host.



     -a                      ping all addresses,  both  IPv4  and
                             IPv6, of the multihomed destination.
                             The output appears as  if  ping  has
                             been run once for each IP address of
                             the destination. If this  option  is
                             used  together  with -A, ping probes
                             only the addresses that are  of  the
                             specified  address family. When used
                             with the -s option and  npackets  is
                             not   specified,  ping  continuously
                             probes the destination addresses  in
                             a  round  robin fashion. If npackets
                             is specified,  ping  sends  npackets
                             number  of probes to each IP address
                             of the destination and then exits.



     -c traffic_class        Specify the traffic class  of  probe
                             packets.   The   value  must  be  an
                             integer in the range from 0 to  255.
                             Gateways  along  the  path can route
                             the   probe   packet    differently,
                             depending    upon   the   value   of
                             traffic_class  set  in   the   probe
                             packet. This option is valid only on
                             IPv6.



     -d                      Set the SO_DEBUG socket option.



     -g gateway              Specify a loose source route gateway
                             so   that   the  probe  packet  goes
                             through the specified host along the
                             path to the target host. The maximum
                             number of gateways is 8 for IPv4 and
                             127 for IPv6. Note that some factors
                             such as the  link  MTU  can  further
                             limit  the  number  of  gateways for
                             IPv6.



     -i interface_address    Specify   the   outgoing   interface
                             address to use for multicast packets
                             for IPv4 and both multicast and uni-
                             cast  packets  for IPv6. The default
                             interface  address   for   multicast
                             packets is determined from the (uni-
                             cast)        routing         tables.
                             interface_address  can  be a literal
                             IP     address,     for     example,
                             10.123.100.99, or an interface name,
                             for example, eri0, or  an  interface
                             index, for example 2.



     -l                      Use to send the probe packet to  the
                             given  host  and  back  again  using
                             loose   source   routing.    Usually
                             specified with the -R option. If any
                             gateways  are  specified  using  -g,
                             they  are visited twice, both to and
                             from the destination. This option is
                             ignored if the -U option is used.



     -n                      Show network addresses  as  numbers.
                             ping  normally  does  a reverse name
                             lookup  on  the  IP   addresses   it
                             extracts  from the packets received.
                             The -n  option  blocks  the  reverse
                             lookup,  so ping prints IP addresses
                             instead of host names.



     -p port                 Set the base UDP port number used in
                             probes. This option is used with the
                             -U option.  The  default  base  port
                             number  is  33434.  The ping utility
                             starts setting the destination  port
                             number  of  UDP packets to this base
                             and increments it  by  one  at  each
                             probe.



     -r                      Bypass the normal routing tables and
                             send   directly  to  a  host  on  an
                             attached network. If the host is not
                             on  a  directly attached network, an
                             error is returned. This  option  can
                             be used to ping a local host through
                             an interface that has  been  dropped
                             by    the    router    daemon.   See
                             in.routed(1M).



     -s                      Send one  datagram  per  second  and
                             collect statistics.



     -t  ttl                 Specify the IPv4 time  to  live,  or
                             IPv6 hop limit, for unicast and mul-
                             ticast packets. The default time  to
                             live (hop limit) for unicast packets
                             can be  set  with  the  ndd  module,
                             /dev/icmp,  using  the icmp_ipv4_ttl
                             variable   for    IPv4    and    the
                             icmp_ipv6_hoplimit    variable   for
                             IPv6. The default time to live  (hop
                             limit) for multicast is one hop. See
                             EXAMPLES. For  further  information,
                             seendd(1M).



     -v                      Verbose  output.   List   any   ICMP
                             (ICMP6)  packets, other than replies
                             from the target host.




OPERANDS
     host     The network host



EXAMPLES
     Example 1: Using ping With IPv6

     This example shows ping sending probe  packets  to  all  the
     IPv6  addresses of the host xyz, one at a time.  It sends an
     ICMP6 ECHO_REQUEST every second until  the  user  interrupts
     it.

     istanbul% ping -s -A inet6 -a xyz
     PING xyz: 56 data bytes
     64 bytes from xyz (4::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=0. time=0.479 ms
     64 bytes from xyz (fec0::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=1. time=0.843 ms
     64 bytes from xyz (4::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=2. time=0.516 ms
     64 bytes from xyz (fec0::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=3. time=4.94 ms
     64 bytes from xyz (4::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=4. time=0.485 ms
     64 bytes from xyz (fec0::114:a00:20ff:ab3d:83ed): icmp_seq=5. time=2.20 ms
     ^C
     ----xyz PING Statistics----
     6 packets transmitted, 6 packets received, 0% packet loss
     round-trip (ms)  min/avg/stddev = 0.479/1.58/4.94/1.8

     Example 2: Using ndd to Set the icmp_ipv6_hoplimit

     This example shows the ndd module, /dev/icmp,  used  to  set
     the icmp_ipv6_hoplimit.

     # ndd -set /dev/icmp icmp_ipv6_hoplimit 100

EXIT STATUS

     The following exit values are returned:

     0               Successful operation; the machine is alive.



     non-zero        An error has occurred.  Either  a  malformed
                     argument  has been specified, or the machine
                     was not alive.



ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:

     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWbip                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     ifconfig(1M),    in.routed(1M),    ndd(1M),     netstat(1M),
     rpcinfo(1M),    traceroute(1M),   attributes(5),   icmp(7P),
     icmp6(7P)










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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