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rpld


NAME
     rpld - Network Booting RPL (Remote Program Load) Server

SYNOPSIS
     /usr/sbin/rpld [-fdDMblgz] interface

     /usr/sbin/rpld -a [-fdDMblgz]

DESCRIPTION
     The RPL server provides network booting functionality to x86
     clients by listening to boot requests from them according to
     the RPL protocol specifications. rpld runs on both  x86  and
     SPARC  systems.  Boot  requests  can be generated by clients
     using the boot floppy supplied in the distribution. Once the
     request  has  been received, the server validates the client
     and  adds  it  to  its  internal  service  list.  Subsequent
     requests  from  the client to download bootfiles will result
     in the sending of data frames from the server to the  client
     specifying  where  to  load the boot program in memory. When
     all the bootfiles have been downloaded, the server specifies
     where to start execution to initiate the boot process.

     In the first synopsis, the  interface  parameter  names  the
     network interface upon which rpld is to listen for requests.
     For example:

          /usr/sbin/rpld /dev/eri0
          /usr/sbin/rpld /dev/smc0


     In the second synopsis, rpld  locates  all  of  the  network
     interfaces present on the system and starts a daemon process
     for each one.

     The server starts by reading the default configuration file,
     or  an  alternate configuration file if one is specified. If
     no configuration file can be found, internal default  values
     will be used. Alternatively, command line options are avail-
     able to override any of  the  values  in  the  configuration
     file. After the configuration options are set, it then opens
     the network interface as specified in the command  line  and
     starts listening to RPL boot requests.

     Network boot clients have to have information pre-configured
     on  a  server for the RPL server to validate and serve them.
     This involves putting configuration information in both  the
     ethers(4)  and the bootparams(4) databases. The ethers data-
     base contains a translation from the physical  node  address
     to the IP address of the clients and is normally used by the
     RARP server. The bootparams database stores all other infor-
     mation  needed  for  booting  off  this  client, such as the
     number of bootfiles and the file names of the  various  boot
     components.  Both  databases  can  be  looked  up by the RPL
     server through NIS. See the sub-section Client Configuration
     for information on how to set up these databases.

     To assist in the administration and maintenance of the  net-
     work  boot activity, there are two run-time signals that the
     server will accept to change some  run-time  parameters  and
     print  out  useful  status  information. See the sub-section
     Signals for details.

     The RPL server is not limited to the ability  to  boot  only
     clients.  If  properly configured, the server should be able
     to download any bootfiles to the clients.

  Client Configuration
     The following configuration information is specific to boot-
     ing x86 clients.

     In order to allow clients to boot x86 from across  the  net-
     work,  the  client's information has to be pre-configured in
     two databases: ethers(4) and bootparams(4).  Both  databases
     can  be  accessed through NIS. Refer to Solaris 10 Installa-
     tion Guide: Basic Installations for information  on  how  to
     configure a diskless x86 client. The discussion contained in
     the rest of this section is provided  for  your  information
     only and should not be performed manually.

     The ethers database contains a translation table to  convert
     the  physical  node address to the IP address of the client.
     Therefore, an IP address must be assigned to the client  (if
     this  has  not  been  done already), the node address of the
     client must be obtained, and then this information needs  to
     be entered in the ethers database.

     The bulk of the configuration  is  done  in  the  bootparams
     database.  This  is  a free-format database that essentially
     contains a number of keyword-value string pairs. A number of
     keywords  have  been defined for specific purposes, like the
     bootparams RPC in bootparamd(1M).  Three more keywords  have
     been  defined  for  the  RPL  server. They are numbootfiles,
     bootfile, and bootaddr. All three keywords must be in lower-
     case  letters with no spaces before or after the equals sym-
     bol following the keyword.

     numbootfiles    Specifies the number of files  to  be  down-
                     loaded to the network boot client.  The for-
                     mat of this option is:



                     numbootfiles=n

                     Always use numbootfiles=3 to boot x86 across
                     the network.



     bootfile        Specifies the path name of the  bootfile  to
                     be  downloaded  and where in memory to start
                     loading the bootfile. A complete  path  name
                     should  be  used.  For example, assuming the
                     client's IP address is 172.16.32.15:


                     bootfile=/rplboot/172.16.32.15.hw.com:45000
                     bootfile=/rplboot/172.16.32.15.glue.com:35000
                     bootfile=/rplboot/172.16.32.15.inetboot=8000


                     The path name following  the  equals  symbol
                     specifies the bootfile to be downloaded, and
                     the hex address following the colon  (:)  is
                     the  absolute address of the memory location
                     to  start  loading  that   bootfile.   These
                     addresses  should be in the range of 7c00 to
                     a0000 (i.e., the base 640K  range  excluding
                     the  interrupt  vector and BIOS data areas).
                     Address 45000 for this  hw.com  bootfile  is
                     also  a  suggested  value  and  if  possible
                     should not be changed. The address of  35000
                     for  glue.com  is a suggested value that, if
                     possible, should not be changed. The address
                     of 8000 for inetboot is an absolute require-
                     ment and should never be changed.



     These files, when created following the  procedures  in  the
     Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Basic Installations are actu-
     ally symbolic links to to the real file to be downloaded  to
     the  client.  hw.com  is  linked  to  a  special driver that
     corresponds to the network interface  card  of  the  client.
     glue.com  and  inetboot  are  generic  to  all  network boot
     clients.

     The order of these bootfile lines is  not  significant,  but
     because problems have been found with certain boot PROMs, it
     is highly recommended that the bootfile lines be ordered  in
     descending order of the load addresses.

     bootaddr        The absolute address in memory to start exe-
                     cuting  after  all  the  bootfiles have been
                     downloaded.  This  address   should   always
                     correspond  to the address where glue.com is
                     being loaded. If possible, always use:



                     bootaddr=35000



OPTIONS
     The following options are supported:

     -b background_mode      Specify 1 to run the server  in  the
                             background  and  relinquish the con-
                             trolling terminal, or 0  to  run  in
                             the foreground without relinquishing
                             the   controlling   terminal.   This
                             option corresponds to the BackGround
                             setting in the  configuration  file.
                             If you have specified that the error
                             or warning messages be sent to stan-
                             dard  output  in  the  configuration
                             file  or  by  using  the  -D  option
                             above,  the  server cannot be run in
                             background mode. Doing so will cause
                             the  server to exit after announcing
                             the error.



     -d debug_level          Specify a level of 0 if you  do  not
                             want  any  error or warning messages
                             to be generated, or a level  from  1
                             to  9 for increasing amounts of mes-
                             sages. This  option  corresponds  to
                             the DebugLevel setting in the confi-
                             guration file. The default value  is
                             0. Note that it is best to limit the
                             level to 8 or below; use of level  9
                             may  generate so many debug messages
                             that  the  performance  of  the  RPL
                             server may be impacted.



     -D debug_destination    Specify 0 to send error  or  warning
                             messages  to  standard  output, 1 to
                             syslogd, and 2 to the log file. This
                             option  corresponds to the DebugDest
                             setting in the  configuration  file.
                             The default value is 2.


     -f config_filename      Use this to specify a  configuration
                             file  name  other  than  the  system
                             default /etc/rpld.conf file.



     -g delay_granularity    This corresponds  to  the  DelayGran
                             setting  in  the configuration file.
                             If  retransmission   requests   from
                             clients  do  occur, the delay granu-
                             larity factor will be used to adjust
                             the  delay  count  for  this  client
                             upwards   or   downwards.   If   the
                             retransmission  request is caused by
                             data overrun, the delay  count  will
                             be  incremented by delay granularity
                             units to increase the delay  between
                             data  frames.  If the retransmission
                             request is caused  by  sending  data
                             too  slowly,  this  will  be used to
                             adjust the delay count downwards  to
                             shorten  the  delay.  Eventually the
                             server  will  settle  at  the  delay
                             count value that works best with the
                             speed   of   the   client   and   no
                             retransmission   request   will   be
                             needed. The default value is 2.



     -l log_filename         Specify an alternate log  file  name
                             to  hold  the  error or warning mes-
                             sages in connection with  the  -D  2
                             option  or  the  configuration  file
                             DebugDest = 2 setting.  This  option
                             corresponds  to  the LogFile setting
                             in  the  configuration   file.   The
                             default is /var/spool/rpld.log.



     -M maximum_clients      Specify the maximum number of simul-
                             taneous  network  boot clients to be
                             served. This option  corresponds  to
                             the MaxClients setting in the confi-
                             guration file. A value of  -1  means
                             unlimited,  and  the  actual  number
                             will  depend  on  available   system
                             resources.  The default value is -1.



     -s start_delay_count    This  option  corresponds   to   the
                             StartDelay setting in the configura-
                             tion file.  Specify  the  number  of
                             delay  units  between  outgoing data
                             frames  sent  to  clients  to  avoid
                             retransmission  requests  from them.
                             Using the LLC type 1 protocol,  data
                             transfer  is  a one-way, best-effort
                             delivery  mechanism.   The   server,
                             without any type of delay mechanism,
                             can overrun the  client  by  sending
                             data  frames too quickly. Therefore,
                             a variable delay is built  into  the
                             server to limit the speed of sending
                             data to the clients,  thus  avoiding
                             the clients sending back retransmis-
                             sion requests.  This value should be
                             machine environment specific. If you
                             have a fast server machine but  slow
                             client machines, you may want to set
                             a large start delay  count.  If  you
                             have  comparable  server  and client
                             machines, the delay count may be set
                             to  1. The delay is only approximate
                             and should not be taken as an  accu-
                             rate  measure  of  time. There is no
                             specific  correlation  between   the
                             delay  unit  and  the actual time of
                             delay. The default value is 20.



     -z frame_size           This  option  corresponds   to   the
                             FrameSize  setting in the configura-
                             tion file. This specifies  the  size
                             of the data frames used to send data
                             to the clients. This is  limited  by
                             the  underlying physical medium. For
                             ethernet/802.3, the maximum physical
                             frame   size  is  1500  octets.  The
                             default value is 1500. Note that the
                             protocol overhead of LLC1 and RPL is
                             32 octets, resulting  in  a  maximum
                             data length of 1468 octets.



  Signals
     The RPL server accepts two signals to change run-time param-
     eters and display status information, respectively:


     HANGUP   This will  cause  the  RPL  server  to  reread  the
              default  configuration  file  /etc/rpld.conf  or an
              alternate configuration file if  one  is  specified
              when  the  server is started. New values of certain
              parameters  can  be  used  immediately,   such   as
              DebugLevel,   DebugDest,  LogFile,  DelayGran,  and
              FrameSize. For MaxClients, if the server is already
              serving  more  than  the new value, the server will
              not  accept  additional  boot  requests  until  the
              number  has  fallen below the MaxClients parameter.
              For StartDelay, this  will  only  affect  new  boot
              requests.  All  the  existing  delay counts for the
              various clients in service will  not  be  affected.
              Finally,  the  BackGround  parameter  will  have no
              effect once the server has been running. You cannot
              change  the  mode  of service without first killing
              the server and then restarting it.



     USR1     This signal will cause the server to dump  all  the
              parameter  values and the status of each individual
              boot client to the destination specified by DebugD-
              est.



FILES
     /usr/sbin/rpld


     /etc/rpld.conf


     /var/spool/rpld.log


     /etc/ethers


     /etc/bootparams


     /rplboot


ATTRIBUTES
     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-
     butes:



     ____________________________________________________________
    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Architecture                | x86, SPARC                  |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|
    | Availability                | SUNWbsu                     |
    |_____________________________|_____________________________|


SEE ALSO
     bootparamd(1M),  in.rarpd(1M),   bootparams(4),   ethers(4),
     nsswitch.conf(4), rpld.conf(4), attributes(5)

     Solaris 10 Installation Guide: Basic Installations










Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.
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