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     ufsdump - incremental file system dump

     /usr/sbin/ufsdump [options] [arguments] files_to_dump

     ufsdump backs up all files specified by files_to_dump  (usu-
     ally either a whole file system or files within a file sytem
     changed after a certain date) to magnetic tape, diskette, or
     disk file.

     The ufsdump command can only be used on unmounted file  sys-
     tems,  or  those  mounted  read-only.  Attempting  to dump a
     mounted, read-write file system might  result  in  a  system
     disruption  or the inability to restore files from the dump.
     Consider using the fssnap(1M) command to create a file  sys-
     tem  snapshot  if  you  need a point-in-time image of a file
     system that is mounted.

     If a filesystem was mounted with the logging option,  it  is
     strongly  recommended that you run ufsdump as the root user.
     Running the command as  a non-root user might result in  the
     creation of an inconsistent dump.

     options is a single string of one-letter ufsdump options.

     arguments may be multiple strings whose association with the
     options  is determined by order. That is, the first argument
     goes with the first  option  that  takes  an  argument;  the
     second  argument  goes  with the second option that takes an
     argument, and so on.

     files_to_dump is required and must be the last  argument  on
     the command line. See OPERANDS for more information.

     With most devices ufsdump can automatically detect the  end-
     of-media.  Consequently,  the  d,  s,  and t options are not
     necessary for multi-volume dumps, unless  ufsdump  does  not
     understand  the  way the device detects the end-of-media, or
     the files are to be restored on a system with an older  ver-
     sion of the restore command.


     The following options are supported:


         The "dump level." All files specified  by  files_to_dump
         that  have  been  modified  since  the last ufsdump at a
         lower dump level are copied to the dump_file destination
         (normally  a  magnetic tape device).  For instance, if a
         "level 2" dump was done on Monday, followed by a  "level
         4"  dump  on  Tuesday,  a  subsequent  "level 3" dump on
         Wednesday would contain  all  files  modified  or  added
         since  the  "level  2" (Monday) backup. A "level 0" dump
         copies the entire file system to the dump_file.

     a archive_file

         Archive file. Archive a dump  table-of-contents  in  the
         specified  archive_file  to be used by ufsrestore(1M) to
         determine whether a file is in the  dump  file  that  is
         being restored.

     b factor

         Blocking factor. Specify the blocking  factor  for  tape
         writes.  The default is 20 blocks per write for tapes of
         density less than 6250BPI (bytes-per-inch). The  default
         blocking factor for tapes of density 6250BPI and greater
         is 64. The default blocking factor for  cartridge  tapes
         (c option) is 126. The highest blocking factor available
         with most tape drives is 126. Note: the blocking  factor
         is  specified  in terms of 512-byte blocks, for compati-
         bility with tar(1).


         Cartridge. Set the defaults for cartridge instead of the
         standard  half-inch  reel.  This  sets  the  density  to
         1000BPI and the blocking factor to  126.  Since  ufsdump
         can  automatically  detect  the  end-of-media,  only the
         blocking parameter normally has  an  effect.  When  car-
         tridge tapes are used, and this option is not specified,
         ufsdump will slightly miscompute the size of  the  tape.
         If  the  b,  d,  s  or t options are specified with this
         option, their values will override the defaults  set  by
         this option.

     d bpi

         Tape density. Not  normally  required,  as  ufsdump  can
         detect  end-of-media. This parameter can be used to keep
         a running tab on the amount of tape used per  reel.  The
         default  density  is 6250BPI except when the c option is
         used for cartridge tape, in which case it is assumed  to
         be  1000BPI  per  track. Typical values for tape devices

         1/2 inch tape

             6250 BPI

         1/4 inch cartridge

             1000 BPI The tape densities and  other  options  are
             documented in the st(7D) man page.


         Diskette. Dump to diskette.

     f dump_file

         Dump file. Use dump_file as the file to dump to, instead
         of  /dev/rmt/0.  If dump_file is specified as -, dump to
         standard output.

         If the name of the file is of the  form  machine:device,
         the  dump  is  done  from the specified machine over the
         network using rmt(1M). Since ufsdump is normally run  by
         root,  the  name of the local machine must appear in the
         /.rhosts file of the remote  machine.  If  the  file  is
         specified  as  user@machine:device, ufsdump will attempt
         to execute as the specified user on the remote  machine.
         The  specified  user  must  have  a  .rhosts file on the
         remote machine that allows the user invoking the command
         from the local machine to access the remote machine.


         Autoload. When the end-of-tape  is  reached  before  the
         dump  is complete, take the drive offline and wait up to
         two minutes for the tape drive to be ready  again.  This
         gives  autoloading (stackloader) tape drives a chance to
         load a new tape.  If  the  drive  is  ready  within  two
         minutes, continue. If it is not, prompt for another tape
         and wait.

     L string

         Sets the tape label to string, instead  of  the  default
         none.  string  may  be  no  more than sixteen characters
         long. If it is longer, it is  truncated  and  a  warning
         printed;  the dump will still be done. The tape label is
         specific to the ufsdump tape format, and bears no resem-
         blance to IBM or ANSI-standard tape labels.


         Notify all operators  in  the  sys  group  that  ufsdump
         requires  attention  by sending messages to their termi-
         nals, in a manner similar to that used by  the  wall(1M)
         command.  Otherwise,  such messages are sent only to the
         terminals (such as the console) on which the  user  run-
         ning ufsdump is logged in.

     N device_name

         Use   device_name   when   recording   information    in
         /etc/dumpdates  (see  the  u  option) and when comparing
         against information in  /etc/dumpdates  for  incremental
         dumps.  The  device_name  provided  can contain no white
         space as defined in scanf(3C) and is case-sensitive.


         Offline. Take the drive offline when the  dump  is  com-
         plete  or  the  end-of-media  is  reached and rewind the
         tape, or eject the diskette. In the case of  some  auto-
         loading  8mm  drives, the tape is removed from the drive
         automatically.  This  prevents  another  process   which
         rushes in to use the drive, from inadvertently overwrit-
         ing the media.

     s size

         Specify the size of the volume being dumped to. Not nor-
         mally required, as ufsdump can detect end-of-media. When
         the specified size is reached, ufsdump waits for you  to
         change the volume. ufsdump interprets the specified size
         as the length in feet for tapes and cartridges,  and  as
         the number of 1024-byte blocks for diskettes. The values
         should be a little smaller than the actual physical size
         of  the  media  (for  example,  425  for a 450-foot car-
         tridge). Typical values for tape devices depend on the c
         option,  for  cartridge  devices,  and  the D option for

         1/2 inch tape

             2300 feet

         60-Mbyte 1/4 inch cartridge

             425 feet

         150-Mbyte 1/4 inch cartridge

             700 feet


             1422 blocks (Corresponds to a  1.44-Mbyte  diskette,
             with  one  cylinder  reserved for bad block informa-


         Size estimate. Determine the amount  of  space  that  is
         needed  to  perform  the dump without actually doing it,
         and display the estimated number of bytes it will  take.
         This  is  useful with incremental dumps to determine how
         many volumes of media will be needed.

     t tracks

         Specify the number of tracks for a cartridge  tape.  Not
         normally  required,  as ufsdump can detect end-of-media.
         The default is 9 tracks. The t option is not  compatible
         with the D option. Values for Sun-supported tape devices

         60-Mbyte 1/4 inch cartridge

             9 tracks

         150-Mbyte 1/4 inch cartridge

             18 tracks

     T time_wait[hms]

         Sets the amount of time to wait for an autoload  command
         to  complete. This option is ignored unless the l option
         has also been specified. The default time period to wait
         is  two  minutes. Specify time units with a trailing h (
         for hours), m (for minutes), or  s  (for  seconds).  The
         default unit is minutes.


         Update the  dump  record.  Add  an  entry  to  the  file
         /etc/dumpdates, for each file system successfully dumped
         that includes the file system name  (or  device_name  as
         specified with the N option), date, and dump level.


         Verify. After each tape or diskette is  written,  verify
         the  contents  of the media against the source file sys-
         tem. If any discrepancies occur, prompt for  new  media,
         then repeat the dump/verification process. The file sys-
         tem must be unmounted. This option  cannot  be  used  to
         verify a dump to standard output.


         Warning. List the file systems that have not been backed
         up  within  a  day. This information is gleaned from the
         files /etc/dumpdates and /etc/vfstab. When the w  option
         is used, all other options are ignored. After reporting,
         ufsdump exits immediately.


         Warning with highlight. Similar to the w option,  except
         that  the W option includes all file systems that appear
         in /etc/dumpdates, along with  information  about  their
         most  recent  dump  dates  and levels. File systems that
         have not been backed up within a day are highlighted.

     The following operand is supported:


         Specifies the files to dump.  Usually  it  identifies  a
         whole  file  system by its raw device name (for example,
         /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s6). Incremental dumps (levels 1  to  9)
         of  files  changed  after a certain date only apply to a
         whole  file  system.  Alternatively,  files_to_dump  can
         identify  individual  files  or  directories.  All named
         directories that may be examined  by  the  user  running
         ufsdump,  as  well  as  any  explicitly-named files, are
         dumped. This dump is equivalent to a level 0 dump of the
         indicated   portions  of  the  filesystem,  except  that
         /etc/dumpdates is not updated even if the -u option  has
         been  specified.  In  all  cases, the files must be con-
         tained in the same file system, and the file system must
         be local to the system where ufsdump is being run.

         files_to_dump is required and must be the last  argument
         on the command line.

     If no options are  given,  the  default  is  9uf  /dev/rmt/0

     See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of ufs-
     dump  when  encountering  files  greater  than or equal to 2
     Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

     Example 1 Using ufsdump

     The following command makes a full dump of a root file  sys-
     tem on c0t3d0, on a 150-MByte cartridge tape unit 0:

       example# ufsdump 0cfu /dev/rmt/0 /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s0

     The following command makes and verifies an incremental dump
     at  level  5  of  the usr partition of c0t3d0, on a 1/2 inch
     reel tape unit 1,:

       example# ufsdump 5fuv /dev/rmt/1 /dev/rdsk/c0t3d0s6

     While running, ufsdump emits many verbose messages.  ufsdump
     returns the following exit values:

         Normal exit.


         Startup errors encountered.


         Abort - no checkpoint attempted.


         default unit to dump to


         dump date record


         to find group sys


         to gain access to remote system with drive


         list of file systems

     See attributes(5) for descriptions of the  following  attri-

    |       ATTRIBUTE TYPE        |       ATTRIBUTE VALUE       |
    | Availability                | SUNWcsu                     |

     cpio(1), tar(1), dd(1M), devnm(1M), fssnap(1M), prtvtoc(1M),
     rmt(1M),    shutdown(1M),    ufsrestore(1M),    volcopy(1M),
     wall(1M),  scanf(3C),  ufsdump(4),   attributes(5),   large-
     file(5), st(7D)

  Read Errors
     Fewer than 32 read errors on the file system are ignored.

  Process Per Reel
     Because each reel requires a new process,  parent  processes
     for  reels  that  are  already written hang around until the
     entire tape is written.

  Operator Intervention
     ufsdump requires operator intervention on these  conditions:
     end  of volume, end of dump, volume write error, volume open
     error or disk read error (if there are more than a threshold
     of 32). In addition to alerting all operators implied by the
     n option, ufsdump interacts with the operator  on  ufsdump's
     control  terminal  at  times  when  ufsdump  can  no  longer
     proceed, or if something is  grossly  wrong.  All  questions
     ufsdump  poses  must  be  answered  by  typing yes or no, as

     Since backing up a disk  can  involve  a  lot  of  time  and
     effort,  ufsdump checkpoints at the start of each volume. If
     writing that volume fails for  some  reason,  ufsdump  will,
     with operator permission, restart itself from the checkpoint
     after a defective volume has been replaced.

  Suggested Dump Schedule
     It is vital to perform full, "level  0",  dumps  at  regular
     intervals.  When  performing  a full dump, bring the machine
     down to single-user mode using shutdown(1M). While preparing
     for  a  full dump, it is a good idea to clean the tape drive
     and heads. Incremental dumps should be  performed  with  the
     system running in single-user mode.

     Incremental dumps allow for convenient backup  and  recovery
     of  active files on a more frequent basis, with a minimum of
     media and time. However, there are  some  tradeoffs.  First,
     the  interval  between  backups  should be kept to a minimum
     (once a day at least). To  guard  against  data  loss  as  a
     result of a media failure (a rare, but possible occurrence),
     capture active files on (at least) two sets of dump volumes.
     Another  consideration  is  the  desire  to keep unnecessary
     duplication of files to a minimum to save both operator time
     and  media  storage.  A third consideration is the ease with
     which a particular  backed-up  version  of  a  file  can  be
     located  and  restored.  The  following  four-week  schedule
     offers a reasonable tradeoff between these goals.

                     Sun    Mon    Tue    Wed    Thu    Fri
          Week 1:   Full    5      5      5      5      3
          Week 2:           5      5      5      5      3
          Week 3:           5      5      5      5      3
          Week 4:           5      5      5      5      3

     Although the Tuesday  through  Friday  incrementals  contain
     "extra  copies"  of  files  from Monday, this scheme assures
     that any file modified during the week can be recovered from
     the previous day's incremental dump.

  Process Priority of ufsdump
     ufsdump uses multiple processes to allow it to read from the
     disk  and write to the media concurrently. Due to the way it
     synchronizes between these processes,  any  attempt  to  run
     dump  with  a nice (process priority) of `-5' or better will
     likely make ufsdump run slower instead of faster.

  Overlapping Partitions
     Most disks contain one or more  overlapping  slices  because
     slice  2  covers  the  entire  disk. The other slices are of
     various sizes and usually do not  overlap.  For  example,  a
     common  configuration  places root on slice 0, swap on slice
     1, /opt on slice 5 and /usr on slice 6.

     It should be emphasized that ufsdump dumps one ufs file sys-
     tem  at  a  time. Given the above scenario where slice 0 and
     slice 2 have the same starting offset, executing ufsdump  on
     slice  2  with  the  intent of dumping the entire disk would
     instead dump only the root file system on slice 0.  To  dump
     the entire disk, the user must dump the file systems on each
     slice separately.

     The /etc/vfstab file does not allow the desired frequency of
     backup for file systems to be specified (as /etc/fstab did).
     Consequently, the w and W options assume file systems should
     be  backed  up  daily,  which limits the usefulness of these

Man pages from Solaris 10 Update 8. See docs.sun.com and www.oracle.com for further documentation and Solaris information.